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SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED QUALIFICATION: 

Further Education and Training Certificate: Carbonate Materials Manufacturing Processes 
SAQA QUAL ID QUALIFICATION TITLE
57692  Further Education and Training Certificate: Carbonate Materials Manufacturing Processes 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Mining and Minerals 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY NQF SUB-FRAMEWORK
MQA - Mining Qualifications Authority  OQSF - Occupational Qualifications Sub-framework 
QUALIFICATION TYPE FIELD SUBFIELD
Further Ed and Training Cert  Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology  Fabrication and Extraction 
ABET BAND MINIMUM CREDITS PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL QUAL CLASS
Undefined  170  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Regular-Unit Stds Based 
REGISTRATION STATUS SAQA DECISION NUMBER REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE
Reregistered  SAQA 06120/18  2018-07-01  2023-06-30 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This qualification does not replace any other qualification and is not replaced by any other qualification. 

PURPOSE AND RATIONALE OF THE QUALIFICATION 
Purpose:

This qualification will enable qualifying learners with the necessary knowledge, understanding and competence to 'Burn" (manufacture) cement or lime in accordance with specified requirements. It provides an opportunity for learners to learn and apply skills in the workplace.

Cement and lime manufacturing are complex processes far beyond the mere reduction or separation of minerals, which impacts on the environment and the occupational safety of people. There are also potential dangers due to the extremely high temperatures of material in the kiln and explosions in electrostatic precipitators.

Process Controllers in modern cement or lime plants control the entire manufacturing process from centralised control rooms by means of state-of-the-art process technology. This involves production stages such as reclaiming of raw materials, materials transport (handling), raw milling, burning and finish milling. Their knowledge of, and application of cement technology scans a wide range of topics such as relevant chemistry, information technology, refractories and materials handling.

Learners acquiring this qualification will have an improved understanding of their role, acquire the applied competencies to consistently and effectively execute their duties by contributing to the manufacturing process and adhering to quality and occupational safety requirements.

This qualification will have a positive impact on society through the products produced (cement and lime). Furthermore, cement and lime plants and their associated quarries are often situated in rural areas, and have a direct and indirect impact on the economies of the towns and rural areas in the vicinity.

People credited with this qualification are able to:
  • Communicate and solve problems by applying mathematical practical applications in a variety of ways.
  • Adhere to occupational safety, health and environmental requirements.
  • Manufacture cement or lime in accordance with the relevant product and quality requirements, by means of applying relevant process technology.
  • Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of and compliance to quality management requirements in the cement or lime manufacturing process.
  • Coordinate work operations, lead teams and practise life skills within the cement or lime manufacturing context.

    Rationale:

    The need for this qualification was identified by means of a number of processes and realities:
  • It was identified as one of the priority areas within the Mining and Minerals Sector by means of the Sector Skills Plan.
  • Employers within the Cement and Lime industry have consistently indicated that this is one of their greatest skills priorities and deem it as a critical need.
  • Rapid technological development has brought about the need for high-level operators capable of achieving world-class performance in a fully automated continuous process environment.
  • Quality standards for lime and particularly cement are stringent. As non-conforming products cannot be reworked; it is of vital importance to maintain standards rigidly, which requires competent process operators known as Burners.

    This qualification will give recognition for the skills and competencies of process controllers, who up to now have been trained and developed on an informal basis only. The associated status of a nationally recognised qualification will serve as a motivation for high-level learners to enter the career of process controlling.

    Current process operators, particularly, will benefit from the opportunities of assessment and subsequent recognition presented by RPL (Recognition of Prior Learning).

    Learners entering this qualification will typically come from cement or lime manufacturing operations, working as Process Attendants, Operator Support or in support services such as Routine Testers in laboratories. In some cases learners can come from industries with similar materials handling processes and equipment (e.g. base metals). Learners from other industries would however have to become familiar with the cement or lime manufacturing materials, equipment and processes before they can proceed with this qualification.

    Another potential source of Learners for the qualification is qualified artisans (e.g. Electricians, Fitters or Millwrights). There is a great deal of merit in multiskilling qualified artisans as process Operators.

    This qualification prepares learners for possible appointment as Process Operators (Often called "Burners") in cement or lime manufacturing operations, controlling the entire manufacturing process by means of technologically advanced process control systems whereby minerals (limestone, silica, magnetite etc.) are processed (Manufactured) into final products (cement and lime respectively).

    The process control function often called "Burning" is considered to be the "heart" of the cement/lime manufacturing industry due to the high level of investment in fixed plant, raw materials and processing costs involved. The contribution to the cement/lime manufacturing process and the associated potential losses due to non-conformance are enormous in terms of operating costs, occupational health and safety implications, impact on the environment, quality of product and potential waste due to non conforming product.

    Cement and lime are both final products used in other industries for various purposes. Both these products play a vital role in the South African economy and even beyond our borders.
  • Lime is used in the gold refining, steel manufacturing, water purification and building and agricultural applications.
  • Cement is used in concrete, plaster, mortar, pipe manufacturing and various other applications in the building, construction, civil and other industries. Cement (as the main "ingredient" of concrete) is indispensable to the development of infrastructure such as roads, dams, bridges, hospitals and schools, all of which are vital in the various macro development initiatives. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    It is assumed that learners are already competent in:
  • Communication and Mathematical Literacy at NQF Level 3.
    The following unit standards:
  • Work in accordance with the Mine Health and Safety Act at NQF Level 3.
  • Operate materials handling plant at NQF Level 3.
  • Mill material in a dry process mill, utilising grinding materials at NQF Level 3.

    Recognition of Prior Learning:

    This qualification can be achieved wholly or in part through recognition of prior learning in terms of the criteria laid out above.

    Evidence can be presented in a variety of forms, including international or previous local qualifications, reports, testimonials mentioning functions performed, work records, portfolios, videos of practice and performance records.

    Access to the qualification:

    Access to this qualification is open bearing in mind learning assumed to be in place. 

  • RECOGNISE PREVIOUS LEARNING? 

    QUALIFICATION RULES 
    The Qualification consists of a Fundamental, a Core and an Elective Component.

    To be awarded the Qualification, learners are required to obtain a minimum of 170 credits as detailed below.

    Fundamental Component:

    The Fundamental Component consists of Unit Standards in:
  • Mathematical Literacy at NQF Level 4 to the value of 16 credits.
  • Communication at NQF Level 4 in a First South African Language to the value of 20 credits.
  • Communication in a Second South African Language at NQF Level 3 to the value of 20 credits.

    It is compulsory therefore for learners to do Communication in two different South African languages, one at NQF Level 4 and the other at NQF Level 3.

    All Unit Standards in the Fundamental Component are compulsory.

    Core Component:

    The Core Component consists of Unit Standards to the value of 58 credits all of which are compulsory.

    Elective Component:

    The Elective Component consists of Unit Standards in two specializations each with its own set of Unit Standards. Learners are to choose a specialization area and Elective Unit Standards at least to the value of 45 credits.


    Cement Manufacturing (total 45 credits):
  • 10476: Demonstrate knowledge of cement quality, NQF Level 3, 6 credits.
  • 10462: Understanding cement process technology, NQF Level 4, 22 credits.
  • 13975: Install and maintain refractory brickwork/blockwork, NQF Level 3, 12 credits.
  • 13975: Install and maintain castable/mouldable refractory materials, NQF Level 3, 5 credits.


    Lime Manufacturing (total 45 credits):
  • 10479: Demonstrate knowledge of lime quality, NQF Level 3, 6 credits.
  • 10464: Demonstrate an understanding of lime technology, NQF Level 4, 16 credits.
  • 10475: Hydrate burnt lime by means of hydration plant, NQF Level 4, 23 credits.

    A further 11 credits are to be chosen from the rest of the electives to make up a minimum of 170 credits for the qualification. 

  • EXIT LEVEL OUTCOMES 
    1. Communicate in the workplace.
    2. Solve problems by applying mathematical practical applications in a variety of ways.
    3. Adhere to occupational health, safety and environmental standards in the workplace.
    4. Manufacture product using relevant process technology in accordance with quality requirements.
    > Range: Product refers to cement or lime.
    5. Demonstrate an understanding of quality management requirements and apply them in the manufacturing process.
    6. Coordinate work operations and lead teams within the manufacturing context.
    > Range: Manufacturing context refers to cement or lime.

    Consistency of Exit Level Outcomes with Critical Crossfield Outcomes

    The following CCFO's have been addressed in this qualification as per the unit standards outlined in the Annexure.

    SAQA Critical Cross-Field Outcomes; Equivalent Exit Level Outcome
  • Identifying and solving problems in which responses display that responsible decisions using critical thinking have been made.; ELO's 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
  • Working effectively with others as a member of a team, group, organization and community.; ELO's 1; 2, 3; 4, 5.
  • Organising and managing oneself and one's activities responsibly and effectively; ELO's 1, 3, 5.
  • Collecting, analyzing, organizing and critically evaluating information.; ELO's 1, 3, 4.
  • Communicating effectively using visual, mathematical and/or language skills; ELO's 1, 4.
  • Using science and technology effectively and critically, showing responsibility toward the environment and health of others; ELO's 1, 3, 4, 5.
  • Demonstrating an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognizing that problem contexts do not exist in isolation; ELO 3, 4, 5, 6.
  • Contributing to the full personal development of each learner and the social and economic development of society at large, by making it an underlying intention of the programme of learning to make an individual aware of: ; ELO's 1, 6.
    > Reflecting on and exploring a variety of strategies to learn more effectively.
    > Participating as responsible citizens in the life of local, national and global communities.
    > Being culturally and aesthetically sensitive across a range of contexts.
    > Exploring education and career opportunities.
    > Developing entrepreneurial opportunities. 

  • ASSOCIATED ASSESSMENT CRITERIA 
    1.
  • Oral communication is maintained and adapted as required to promote effective interaction in a work context.
  • Written communication is conducted at an appropriate level for designated target audiences.

    2.
  • Mathematical principles and techniques are applied while performing the tasks in the operational context.
  • Problems and solutions are recorded and monitored for reoccurrence.

    3.
  • Workplace Occupational Health, Safety, Hygiene and Environmental requirements are adhered to at all times as per workplace requirements.
  • Hazardous conditions are identified and explained in accordance with specified requirements.

    4.
  • Materials handling plant is operated in accordance with manufacturing requirements.
  • Mills are operated to produce materials ground to the required degree of fineness and homogeneity.
  • Kiln conditions are monitored and adjusted in order to produce material of the required quality.
    > Range: Material refers to burnt lime and clinker.
  • Equipment is operated in compliance with the relevant environmental standards and requirements.
  • Burnt Lime (Lime manufacturing), Clinker and Cement (Cement manufacturing) are manufactured in accordance with specified requirements.
  • The Burnt Lime, Clinker and Cement manufacturing processes are controlled in accordance with workplace specified requirements.

    5.
  • Quality requirements are explained and adhered to in the manufacturing process in terms of:
    > Raw materials quality.
    > In-process materials quality.
    > Finished product quality.
    > Processes.
    > Reporting and dealing with non conformances.
    > Record keeping.
    > Range: Manufacturing process refers to cement or lime.

    6.
  • Inputs from relevant sources are evaluated and discussed in order to achieve objectives.
  • Activities of team members are co-ordinated in order to achieve individual and team work objectives

    Integrated Assessment:

    Integrated assessment at the level of the qualification provides an opportunity for learners to show they are able to integrate concepts, actions and ideas achieved across a range of unit standards and contexts.

    Integrated assessment must evaluate the quality of observable performance as well as the thinking behind the performance, and must be based on a summative assessment guide. The guide will spell out how the assessor will assess different aspects of the performance and will include:
  • Observing the learner at work (both in the primary activity as well as other interactions).
  • Asking questions and initiating short discussions to test understanding.
  • Looking at records and reports in the portfolio and reviewing previous assessments.

    In some cases interference will be necessary to determine competence depending on the nature and context within which performance takes place.

    The learner may choose in which language s/he wants to be assessed. This should be established as part of a process of preparing the learner for assessment and familiarising the learner with the approach being taken.

    While this is primarily a workplace-based qualification, evidence from other areas of endeavour may be introduced if pertinent to any of the exit-level outcomes. The assessment process should cover both the explicit tasks required for the qualification as well as the understanding of the concepts and principles that underpin the activities associated with manufacturing cement or lime. 

  • INTERNATIONAL COMPARABILITY 
    The manufacture of cement or lime occurs in a large number of countries world-wide. Therefore the countries chosen to benchmark this qualification against, were selected based on proven best practice within the field of cement or lime manufacture and those are New Zealand, Southern California and Arabian countries.

    New Zealand: (http://www.nzqa.govt.nz/nqfdocs/quals/doc/0474.doc)

    A relevant qualification - National Certificate in Minerals Processing was found. The following is an outline of the qualification with a broad range of electives.

    Unit Standard Titles:
  • Suppress fire with hand extinguishers and fixed hose reels.
  • Operate a lime mill processing plant.
  • Manage first aid in an emergency situation.
  • Provide first aid.
  • Provide resuscitation level 2.
  • Protect health and safety in the workplace.
  • Lift and move a range of loads at an extractive site.
  • Communicate information in a specified workplace.
  • Facilitate a group and/or team to gather ideas and information.
  • Participate in groups and/or teams to make decisions.

    Favorable comparisons were found in terms of Occupational Health and Safety. The unit standard outcomes in "Operate a lime mill processing plant" compares well to the unit standards in this FETC " Clear hot, dry blockages in a mineral process" and "Demonstrate knowledge of Lime quality".

    The FETC Cement Lime Manufacturing compares favorably in terms of structure and levels, both being Level 4 qualifications; however the unit standards in the New Zealand qualification span varying levels while this FETC is on Level 3 and 4 unit standards.

    Portland Cement Association (PCA) - Regional programs run in Southern California, the Midwest and Texas, and Georgia:

    The following customised training courses were found:
  • Cement and Concrete Overview.

    This course covers much technical ground and is specifically designed for those entering the cement industry from other technical fields.

    The following is the outline of the program.
  • Develop an understanding of the cement manufacturing process and the concrete production process.
  • Learn about the different concrete markets.
  • Understand cement and concrete terminology.
  • View an economic snapshot of the cement industry.
  • Kiln Process.

    This course is designed to give learners a thorough understanding of cement manufacturing processes and enable them to make intelligent decisions affecting quality and production efficiency. Rather than focusing on the specifics of daily kiln operation, the sessions emphasize the much larger picture of how to maximize kiln efficiency.
  • Gain a thorough background in the theory of cement manufacturing.
  • Understand the interrelationships between quarry, blending processes, quality control, and environmental issues.
  • Learn ways to optimize the manufacturing process.
  • Participate in interactive workshops to discuss specific problems.
  • Composition requirements.
  • Quarry operation.
  • Fundamentals of heat recuperation.
  • Effects of composition of kiln charge.
  • Theory of clinkering.
  • Rings and build-ups.
  • Gas analyzers.
  • Optimization techniques.
  • Principles of microscopic analysis.
  • Clinker coolers.
  • Process control.
  • Refractories.

    While similar elements of competence were found, similar qualifications were not found. The outcomes of these two training programmes match closely with the outcomes of the unit standards incorporated in this FETC Cement and Lime Manufacture.

    Arab Union for Cement and Building Materials: (http://www.aucbm.org/english/activiti/trains/trains.htm)

    Training courses are conducted in "Quality Control in Cement Production" at the training center of The Jordan Cement Factories Co and Qatar.

    These are some courses conducted:
  • Controlling cement quality, raw materials and products.
  • Refractory lining in cement kilns.
  • Operating preheater kilns Total Quality Management & ISO 9 000.
  • Kiln Maintenance.
  • Cement Chemistry and Quality Control.

    Here again, the outcomes are very similar to the outcomes within this FETC:
  • The course outcomes "Controlling cement quality, raw materials and products" compared well to the unit standard outcomes of "Demonstrate knowledge of cement quality" in this FETC.

    Similarly, the courses offered in "Refractory lining in cement kilns, Operating pre-heater kilns, Total Quality Management & ISO 9 000, Kiln Maintenance, Cement Chemistry and Quality Control" compare closely to the outcomes of the following unit standards:
  • " Install gunite materials for refractory linings.
  • Install and maintain refractory brickwork/block work.
  • Hydrate burnt lime by means of hydration plant.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the refractory materials, products and processes, Manufacture calcined products in a rotary kiln.
  • Burn carbonate material in a kiln.
  • Contribute to and improve on the operation of a quality assurance system.
  • Clear hot, dry blockages in a mineral process.
  • Demonstrate knowledge of cement quality.
  • Demonstrate knowledge of lime quality.
  • Control limestone material stockpile quality".

    These entire units standard are used respectively in this FETC Cement and Lime Manufacturing.

    Africa:

    No relevant qualifications could be found in other Southern African countries, although all the major cement/lime companies in South Africa have factories in other Southern African countries. For development of this FETC there was representation from the various leading cement producers. Their training and development interventions occur countrywide and thus best practices have been incorporated in the development of this FETC.

    In conclusion whilst this qualification does not compare to any international qualifications as a whole, there is a degree of comparison with the individual building blocks (unit standards) and programs of the countries compared with. This information was utilised wherever possible when developing the related Unit standards for this qualification, therefore ensuring that the learners will acquire competencies which can be applied in other external countries. 

  • ARTICULATION OPTIONS 
    This qualification allows for both vertical and horizontal articulation.

    Vertical articulation exists with:
  • National Certificate: Process management in cement/lime NQF Level 5

    Horizontal articulation exists between the two specialisation areas (cement and lime) or to other minerals processing applications such as base minerals, chrome and industrial minerals. E.g. FETC: Minerals Processing NLRD ID: 49042, 49050, 49051. 

  • MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against the qualification must be registered as an assessor with the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable the achievement of this qualification must be accredited as a provider with the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Assessment and moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or by an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA, according to the ETQA's policies and guidelines for assessment and moderation.
  • Moderation must include both internal and external moderation of assessments, unless ETQA policies specify otherwise. Moderation should also encompass achievement of the competence described in the associated unit standards.
  • Anyone wishing to be assessed against this qualification may apply to be assessed by any assessment agency, assessor or provider institution that is accredited by the relevant ETQA. 

  • CRITERIA FOR THE REGISTRATION OF ASSESSORS 
    Assessors should be in possession of:
  • An appropriate qualification at or above the level of the qualification and preferably relevant workplace practical experience.
  • Registration as an assessor with the relevant ETQA. 

  • REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this qualification was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    NOTES 
    Range: Carbonate materials refers to Cement or Lime. 

    UNIT STANDARDS: 
      ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
    Core  10457  Clear hot, dry material blockages in a mineral process  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Core  7117  Contribute to and improve on the operation of a quality assurance system  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Core  10461  Manufacture calcined products in a rotary kiln  Level 4  NQF Level 04  36 
    Core  10981  Supervise work unit to achieve work unit objectives (individuals and teams)  Level 4  NQF Level 04  12 
    Fundamental  119472  Accommodate audience and context needs in oral/signed communication  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Fundamental  119458  Analyse and respond to a variety of literary texts  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Fundamental  119457  Interpret and use information from texts  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Fundamental  119465  Write/present/sign texts for a range of communicative contexts  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Fundamental  9015  Apply knowledge of statistics and probability to critically interrogate and effectively communicate findings on life related problems  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Fundamental  119462  Engage in sustained oral/signed communication and evaluate spoken/signed texts  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Fundamental  119469  Read/view, analyse and respond to a variety of texts  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Fundamental  9016  Represent analyse and calculate shape and motion in 2-and 3-dimensional space in different contexts  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Fundamental  119471  Use language and communication in occupational learning programmes  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Fundamental  7468  Use mathematics to investigate and monitor the financial aspects of personal, business, national and international issues  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Fundamental  119459  Write/present/sign for a wide range of contexts  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  242751  Control limestone stockpile quality  Level 3  NQF Level 03  10 
    Elective  13974  Demonstrate an understanding of the refractory materials, products and processes  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Elective  10476  Demonstrate knowledge of Cement quality  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Elective  10479  Demonstrate knowledge of lime quality  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Elective  13975  Install and maintain castable/mouldable refractory materials  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Elective  13976  Install and maintain refractory brickwork/blockwork  Level 3  NQF Level 03  12 
    Elective  11454  Install ceramic fibre materials  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Elective  13977  Install gunite materials for refractory linings  Level 3  NQF Level 03  10 
    Elective  13941  Apply the budget function in a business unit  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  242756  Burn carbonate material in a kiln  Level 4  NQF Level 04  36 
    Elective  120341  Conduct a Task Analysis and take appropriate action to address identified risks  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  10462  Demonstrate an understanding of cement technology  Level 4  NQF Level 04  22 
    Elective  10464  Demonstrate an understanding of lime technology  Level 4  NQF Level 04  16 
    Elective  10475  Hydrate burnt lime by means of a lime hydration plant  Level 4  NQF Level 04  23 


    LEARNING PROGRAMMES RECORDED AGAINST THIS QUALIFICATION: 
     
    NONE 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS QUALIFICATION: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. PRETORIA PORTLAND CEMENT CO_LTD (HEAD OFFICE) 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.