SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED QUALIFICATION THAT HAS PASSED THE END DATE: 

National Diploma: Orientation and Mobility Practice for Blind and Partially Sighted Persons 
SAQA QUAL ID QUALIFICATION TITLE
49087  National Diploma: Orientation and Mobility Practice for Blind and Partially Sighted Persons 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Inclusive Education 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY NQF SUB-FRAMEWORK
Was ETDP SETA until Last Date for Achievement  OQSF - Occupational Qualifications Sub-framework 
QUALIFICATION TYPE FIELD SUBFIELD
National Diploma  Field 05 - Education, Training and Development  Adult Learning 
ABET BAND MINIMUM CREDITS PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL QUAL CLASS
Undefined  248  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  Regular-Unit Stds Based 
REGISTRATION STATUS SAQA DECISION NUMBER REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE
Passed the End Date -
Status was "Reregistered" 
SAQA 0160/05  2008-01-22  2009-07-29 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2010-07-29   2014-07-29  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This qualification is replaced by: 
Qual ID Qualification Title Pre-2009 NQF Level NQF Level Min Credits Replacement Status
67373  National Diploma: Orientation and Mobility Practice  Level 5  NQF Level 05  240   

PURPOSE AND RATIONALE OF THE QUALIFICATION 
The purpose of the Qualification is to ensure that practitioners are capable of enabling persons who are who are blind or partially sighted to be functionally independent by teaching them effective and appropriate orientation and mobility and skills of daily living. Such life skills will empower people who are blind or partially sighted and promote educational, social and economic inclusivity. The Qualification and its components are suited to train professionals who educate and train, as well as non-professionals such as parents and caregivers who are in contact with persons who are blind or partially sighted. The Qualification provides learners with the competencies to advocate for the necessity of Orientation and Mobility competence for people who are blind or partially sighted.

The qualified learners thus support people who are blind or partially sighted to enhance the quality of their lives, promote inclusion in the community and benefits the economy by adding to the competency pool and employability of people who are blind or partially sighted. Qualified learners are capable of:
  • Reading and writing Grade 1 (Uncontacted) Braille
  • Presenting information in reporting formats
  • Applying self management concepts
  • Facilitating activities of daily living for persons who are blind or partially sighted in a controlled environment
  • Mapping aspects of the environment for persons who are blind or partially sighted
  • Orientating themselves to the environment when experiencing a visual barrier
  • Travelling through environments whilst experiencing a visual barrier
  • Facilitating travelling through environments for people who are blind or partially sighted
  • Developing learning strategies for persons who are blind or partially sighted
  • Guiding and supporting persons who are blind or partially sighted, taking into account the principles of inclusion within the South African context
  • Conducting research and liaising relevant to learning situations
  • Establishing community resource projects
  • Designing, implementing and following up on internal assessment for adult learners
  • Conducting basic lay counselling in a structured environment
  • Conducting advocacy campaigns and workshops in development practice
  • Completing research assignments
  • Facilitating learning in a professional, ethical way
  • Enhancing visual functioning of persons experiencing low vision to improve quality of life

    Qualified learners also elect to become capable of:
  • Setting up a business that is viable
  • Facilitating the development of quality of life skills in children who are blind or partially sighted
  • Facilitate the enhancement of life quality of persons with visual disabilities experiencing additional barrier/s

    Rationale:

    A National Diploma in Orientation and Mobility Practice (NQF Level 5) will equip qualified learners to facilitate the independence of persons who are blind or partially sighted, thereby enhancing the quality of life of such persons. The Qualification not only equips the learner with specific competencies, but also those persons whose learning is facilitated by the qualified Orientation and Mobility Practitioner. The consequence of this is that the qualified learners can increase their earning capacity, as well as that of the individual who is blind or partially sighted who is assisted by the qualified practitioner. The qualified Orientation and Mobility Practitioners thus positively affect their communities through their services. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    The design and credits of this Qualification are based on the assumptions that learners have already attained the following competencies, before embarking on learning towards this Qualification:
  • Communication at NQF Level 4 in one language
  • Communication at NQF Level 3 in another language
  • Computer literacy

    Recognition of prior learning (RPL)

    This Qualification can be achieved wholly, or in part, through recognition of prior learning. Evidence can be presented in a variety of forms, including previous international or local Qualifications, reports, testimonials, mentoring, functions performed, portfolios, work records and performance records. As such, evidence is judged according to the general principles of assessment described in the notes to assessors below. Learners who have met the requirements of any Unit Standard that forms part of this Qualification may apply for recognition of prior learning to the relevant Education and Training Quality Assurance body (ETQA). The applicant must be assessed against the specific outcomes and with the assessment criteria for the relevant Unit Standards. A Qualification will be awarded should a learner demonstrate that the exit level outcomes of the Qualification have been attained. 

  • RECOGNISE PREVIOUS LEARNING? 

    QUALIFICATION RULES 
  • Fundamental component: All 10 credits are compulsory
  • Core component: All 223 credits are compulsory
  • Elective component: A minimum of 15 credits can be chosen from the selection of Unit Standards available. 

  • EXIT LEVEL OUTCOMES 
    Fundamental and Core
    1. Communicate effectively with persons experiencing a visual barrier using Braille

    2. Present and manage information to enhance own professional conduct

    3. Travel through an environment whilst experiencing a visual barrier

    4. Facilitate the travel of persons experiencing a visual barrier through an environment

    5. Provide various means of support for persons experiencing a visual barrier

    6. Conduct advocacy campaigns to the benefit of persons who are blind or partially sighted

    7. Facilitate the development of strategies for optimal daily functioning for persons experiencing low vision

    Elective (at least 15 credits required to qualify)

    1. Facilitate optimal daily functioning for children who are blind or partially sighted

    2. Facilitate the enhancement of life quality of persons with visual disabilities experiencing additional barrier/s

    3. Develop new business ideas that are viable 

    ASSOCIATED ASSESSMENT CRITERIA 
    Fundamental and Core

    1.
  • Writing in Braille is achieved through the use of appropriate equipment that meets code requirements
  • Reading in Braille is demonstrated through accurate recognition and interpretation of codes
  • Braille messages are interpreted congruent with specific texts
  • Written Braille is edited to ensure optimal reader-friendliness of persons who are blind or partially sighted
  • Proper conduct is determined and regulated by adhering to specified ethical and professional requirements at all times

    2.
  • Own strengths and weaknesses identified are explained in terms of specific context requirements and observed examples
  • Analysis of own strengths and weaknesses identifies strategies for compensation where required
  • Areas for improvement in specific contexts are identified and addressed appropriately for such contexts
  • Reports are compiled that meet specified requirements
  • Proper conduct is determined and regulated by adhering to specified ethical and professional requirements to at all times

    3.
  • Orientation is done effectively whilst experiencing a visual barrier
  • Environment is dealt with in a safe way whilst experiencing a visual barrier
  • Assistive devices (including guides and long canes) are used to travel through environments are used effectively for such environments
  • Empathy for persons experiencing a visual barrier is explained within the context of specific environments

    4.
  • Orientation and travel for persons who are blind or partially sighted are facilitated in a way that promotes the safety and quality of life of such persons
  • The use of assistive devices (includes sighted guides and long canes) is facilitated for person who are blind or partially sighted promotes safety
  • The performance of activities of daily living by persons who are blind or partially sighted is facilitated effectively for specific contexts
  • The safe independence of persons who are blind or partially sighted is facilitated by providing the necessary requirements
  • Proper conduct is determined and regulated by adhering to specified ethical and professional requirements all times

    5.
  • Maps are compiled for the appropriate and optimal use by persons who are blind or partially sighted
  • Support provided for persons who are blind or partially sighted is justified in terms of optimal learning
  • Identification of needs for emotional support for persons who are blind or partially sighted is justified in terms of observed indicators of needs
  • Emotional support is provided for persons who are blind or partially sighted, appropriate for specific contexts
  • Proper conduct is determined and regulated by adhering to specified ethical and professional at all times

    6.
  • Planning of advocacy campaigns are conducted to optimise available resources
  • Materials used in advocacy campaigns are adapted for those who are blind or partially sighted where required
  • Environments and/or materials for advocacy campaigns are prepared are prepared to optimally meet the set objectives of such campaigns
  • Advocacy campaigns are launched in a way that optimally suits the set objectives of such campaigns
  • Proper conduct is determined and regulated by adhering to specified ethical and professional requirements at all times

    7.
  • Identification of needs of persons with low vision is justified in terms of observed indicators of needs
  • Level of visual functioning is assessed against given criteria
  • Techniques and methods to enhance daily functioning is facilitated to meet specific context requirements
  • Strategies employed are reflected on and adapted, if necessary, to further enhance functioning
  • Proper conduct is determined and regulated by adhering to specified ethical and professional requirements at all times

    Elective (at least 15 credits required to qualify)

    1.
  • Assessment of children who are blind or partially sighted is conducted in order to identify constraints and potential for optimal learning
  • Orientation and mobility of children are facilitated in a way that ensures safety
  • Learning strategies are facilitated to promote optimal future learning
  • Learning potential is continually monitored and facilitation adapted accordingly
  • Proper conduct is determined and regulated by adhering to specified ethical and professional requirements at all times

    2.
  • Physical or intellectual barriers are recognised ethically, with empathy, and against given criteria
  • The impact of additional barriers on practitioner behaviour is analysed in terms of specific requirements for facilitation
  • Learning programmes are modified for persons experiencing visual and other barriers meets specific requirements
  • The suitability of adapted learning programmes is justified in terms of specific requirements
  • Proper conduct is determined and regulated by adhering to specified ethical and professional requirements at all times

    3.
  • An entrepreneurial profile is described accurately
  • Strategic planning is justified in terms of potential improvements in business performance
  • Business plans for a new venture are drawn up in accordance with feasibility within specific contexts
  • Research regarding the viability of new venture ideas or opportunities is conducted to meet specified requirements
  • Proper conduct is determined and regulated by adhering to specified ethical and professional requirements at all times

    Integrated assessment

    The assessment criteria of the unit standards are performance-based, assessing applied competence rather than only knowledge, or skills. In addition, learners must demonstrate that they can achieve the outcomes in an integrated manner, dealing effectively with different and random demands related to the environmental conditions in occupational contexts, to qualify. Evidence is required that the learner is able to achieve the exit level outcomes of the Qualification as a whole and thus its purpose, at the time of the award of the Qualification. Workplace experience can be recognised when assessing towards this Qualification. 

  • INTERNATIONAL COMPARABILITY 
    Most orientation and mobility Qualifications are delivered in the United Kingdom and the United States of America. South Africa is the only African country with recorded orientation and mobility training.

    In the United Kingdom, a two-year Diploma in Higher Education in Rehabilitation Studies is the equivalent of this South African Qualification. It contains an equivalent number of credits (240 credits) at the same level as this Qualification. Competencies addressed in the Qualification are equivalent with the exception of the United Kingdom Qualification addressing competencies related to the management of leisure and recreation, counselling/interpersonal skills (the South African Qualification requires referral to professionals such as psychologists) and reading and writing Grade 2 Braille. The equivalent competencies include (for 20 credits each):
  • Communications
  • Independent Living Skills
  • Orientation & Mobility
  • Social Studies/Client Assessment
  • The Eye & Low Vision/Audiology
  • Teaching & Learning
  • Multiple Disability/Dual Sensory Loss (this is an elective in the South African Qualification)
    The Qualification includes two practice placements. The South African Qualification addresses advocacy, research, travel and orientation through controlled environments whilst experiencing a visual barrier, and business development (elective) competence, not included in the United Kingdom Qualification.

    The New Zealand framework has a Post Graduate Diploma in Rehabilitation specialising in rehabilitation of the visually impaired (Orientation and Mobility). The Qualification is shorter than the South African Diploma, as it consists of the equivalent of 160 credits, including a practice placement. The Qualification includes:
  • Theory and Practice in Rehabilitation
  • Education and Rehabilitation of the Visually Impaired
  • Adaptive Communication and Activities of Daily Living
  • Orientation and Mobility
    The South African Qualification addresses all the above components, and also advocacy, research, travel and orientation through controlled environments whilst experiencing a visual barrier, specialisation in orientation and mobility training for children (elective) and business development (also elective).

    In the United States of America, a degree (equivalent to South African NQF Level 6) and a Master of Arts in Rehabilitation of the Blind specialising in Orientation and Mobility is offered (equivalent to South African NQF Level 7), that is longer than the South African Qualification (between 300 and 360 credits) and includes an internship. The Masters Qualification (closer equivalent to the South African Qualification) includes:
  • Orientation and mobility instruction
  • Rehabilitation teaching
  • Blindfold simulation classes
  • An introduction to rehabilitation
  • Medical Aspects of Blindness and Associated Disabilities
  • Psychological Aspects of Disability
  • Low Vision Implications
  • Introduction of Methods of Mobility
  • Principles of O&M
  • Introduction to Research (elective)
  • Managing the Learning Environment
  • Techniques of the Counselling Interview
  • Advanced Methods of Mobility
    The South African Qualification appears to be equivalent - except for rehabilitation teaching and counselling - and addresses competencies not included in the above Master of Arts, such as advocacy, business development, communication, and specialising in training of children. 

  • ARTICULATION OPTIONS 
    Vertical articulation upwards is possible with small business management Qualifications, through the Elective component. Also, various unit standards also found in the National Certificate in Occupationally Directed ETD Practice (NQF Level 5) ensures horizontal articulation. Through the research competence required in the Core component, horizontal articulation with many Qualifications in the Higher Education and Training Band is possible, for example, the National Diploma in General Translation (NQF Level 5). Further horizontal articulation will be possible with a National Certificate in Braille Practice. 

    MODERATION OPTIONS 
    Moderation of assessment and accreditation of providers shall be at the discretion of a relevant ETQA as long as it complies with SAQA requirements. The ETQA is responsible for moderation of achievements of learners who meet the requirements of this Qualification. Particular moderation and accreditation requirements are:
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable the achievement of this Qualification must be accredited as a provider with the relevant ETQA. Providers offering learning towards achievement of any of the unit standards that make up this Qualification must also be accredited through the relevant ETQA accredited by SAQA;
  • The ETQA will oversee assessment and moderation of assessment according to their policies and guidelines for assessment and moderation, or in terms of agreements reached around assessment and moderation between the relevant ETQA and other ETQAs and in terms of the moderation guideline detailed here;
  • Moderation must include both internal and external moderation of assessments for the Qualification, unless the relevant ETQA policies specify otherwise. Moderation should also encompass achievement of the competence described in Unit Standards as well as the integrated competence described in the Qualification;
  • Internal moderation of assessment must take place at the time of assessment of competence, with external moderation provided by a relevant ETQA according to the moderation guidelines and the agreed ETQA procedures;
  • Anyone wishing to be assessed against this Qualification may apply to be assessed by any assessment agency, assessor or provider institution that is accredited by the relevant ETQA. 

  • CRITERIA FOR THE REGISTRATION OF ASSESSORS 
    Assessment of learner achievements is conducted by providers accredited by the relevant ETQA (RSA, 1998b) for the provision of programs that result in the outcomes specified for this Qualification. Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against this Qualification must be registered as an assessor with the ETQA. Assessors registered with the relevant ETQA must carry out the assessment of learners for the Qualification and any of the Unit Standards that make up this Qualification.

    To register as an assessor, the following are required:
  • Detailed documentary proof of relevant Qualification/s, practical training completed, and experience gained;
  • NQF recognised assessor unit standard.

    Assessors should keep the following general principles in mind when designing and conducting assessments:
  • Focus the initial assessment activities on gathering evidence in terms of the main outcomes expressed in the titles of the Unit Standards to ensure assessment is integrated rather than fragmented. Remember that the learner needs to be declared competent in terms of the Qualification purpose and exit level outcomes;
  • Where assessment across Unit Standard titles or at Unit Standard title level is unmanageable, then focus assessment around each specific outcome, or groups of specific outcomes. Take special note of the need for integrated assessment;
  • Make sure evidence is gathered across the entire range, wherever it applies.

    In particular, assessors should assess that the learner demonstrates an ability to consider a range of options by:
  • Measuring the quality of the observed practical performance as well as the theory and underpinning knowledge;
  • Using methods that are varied to allow the learner to display thinking and decision making in the demonstration of practical performance;
  • Maintaining a balance between practical performance and theoretical assessment methods to ensure each is measured in accordance with the level of the Qualification;
  • Taking into account that the relationship between practical and theoretical components is not fixed, but varies according to the type and level of Qualification.

    All assessments should be conducted in line with the following well-documented principles:
  • Appropriate: The method of assessment is suited to the performance being assessed;
  • Fair: The method of assessment does not present any barriers to achievements, which are not related to the evidence;
  • Manage: The methods used make for easily arranged cost-effective assessments that do not unduly interfere with learning;
  • Integrate into work or learning: Evidence collection is integrated into the work or learning process where this is appropriate and feasible;
  • Valid: The assessment focuses on the requirements laid down in the standards; i.e. the assessment is fit for purpose;
  • Direct: The activities in the assessment mirror the conditions of actual performance as close as possible;
  • Authentic: The assessor is satisfied that the work being assessed is attributable to the learner being assessed;
  • Sufficient: The evidence collected establishes that all criteria have been met and that performance to the required Standard can be repeated consistently;
  • Systematic: Planning and recording is sufficiently rigorous to ensure that assessment is fair;
  • Open: Learners can contribute to the planning and accumulation of evidence. Learners for assessment understand the assessment process and the criteria that apply;
  • Consistent: The same assessor would make the same judgement again in similar circumstances. The judgement made is similar than the judgement that would be made by other assessors. 

  • NOTES 
    This qualification has been replaced by qualification 67373, which is "National Diploma: Orientation and Mobility Practice", Level 5, 241 credits. 

    UNIT STANDARDS: 
      ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
    Core  14048  Apply Self Management Concepts  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Core  110056  Conduct advocacy campaigns and workshops in development practice  Level 4  NQF Level 04  12 
    Core  114478  Conduct basic lay counselling in a structured environment  Level 4  NQF Level 04  15 
    Core  117095  Facilitate optimal functioning for persons who are blind and partially sighted in controlled environments  Level 4  NQF Level 04  15 
    Core  13674  Identify and support learners with special needs  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Core  110023  Present information in report format  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Core  117087  Read and write Grade 1 (Uncontracted) Braille  Level 4  NQF Level 04  12 
    Core  10291  Design, implement and follow up on internal assessment for adult learners  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  12 
    Core  117092  Develop learning styles for facilitation of learning of people who are blind or partially sighted  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  15 
    Core  117089  Enhance visual functioning of persons with low vision to improve quality of life  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  12 
    Core  14800  Establish a community resource project  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  20 
    Core  116484  Evaluate a specified code of ethics and/or code of conduct  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
    Core  117093  Facilitate travelling through environments for people who are blind or partially sighted  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  15 
    Core  117091  Map aspects of the environment for persons who are blind and partially sighted  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  15 
    Core  117088  Orientate self to the environment whilst experiencing a visual barrier  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  10 
    Core  117090  Travel through environments whilst experiencing a visual barrier  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  15 
    Core  10301  Complete a research assignment  Level 6  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L6  20 
    Core  10305  Devise interventions for learners who have special needs  Level 6  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L6  16 
    Fundamental  10292  Conduct research and liaison relevant to the learning situation  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  10 
    Elective  114598  Demonstrate an understanding of an entrepreneurial profile  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  114585  Plan strategically to improve business performance  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  114592  Produce business plans for a new venture  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  114596  Research the viability of new venture ideas/opportunities  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  117094  Facilitate the development of quality of life skills of children who are blind and partially sighted  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  20 
    Elective  10294  Identify and respond to learners with special needs and barriers to learning  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  10 


    LEARNING PROGRAMMES RECORDED AGAINST THIS QUALIFICATION: 
    When qualifications are replaced, some of their learning programmes are moved to being recorded against the replacement qualifications. If a learning programme appears to be missing from here, please check the replacement.
     
    NONE 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS QUALIFICATION: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    NONE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.