SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Identify and explain permaculture principles 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
116150  Identify and explain permaculture principles 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Primary Agriculture 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 01 - Agriculture and Nature Conservation Primary Agriculture 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 1  NQF Level 01 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
The learner achieving this unit standard will be able to demonstrate and recognise the basic concepts of permaculture principles that are applied to achieve the sustainable development of a landscape. S/he will start developing an understanding of the ecological principles that underpin this approach and will be able to contribute to the overall sustainability of the developed landscape.

In addition, the learner will be well positioned to extend their learning and practice into other areas of natural resource use and farming systems that are applying organic practices in general.

Learners will gain specific knowledge and skills in permaculture and will be able to operate in a plant production environment implementing sustainable and economically viable production principles.

They will be capacitated to gain access to the mainstream agricultural sector, in plant production, impacting directly on the sustainability of the sub-sector. The improvement in production technology will also have a direct impact on the improvement of agricultural productivity of the sector. 

LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
No previous learning is assumed to be in place. 

UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
Whilst range statements have been defined generically to include as wide a set of alternatives as possible, all range statements should be interpreted within the specific context of application.

Range statements are neither comprehensive nor necessarily appropriate to all contexts. Alternatives must however be comparable in scope and complexity. These are only as a general guide to scope and complexity of what is required. 

Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
Identify site elements and resources and list their inputs and outputs. 
OUTCOME RANGE 
Site resources include, but are not limited to, soil, water, plants, animals, air (wind), and energy (including human energy).

Site elements refer to, but are not limited to, the components of a design, such as nurseries, water harvesting, orchards, aquaculture and other production areas. The site elements will differ from one context to another.

Productivity refers to the balance between inputs and outputs, i.e. the total yield of the site is considered in a holistic sense, rather than individual elements in isolation. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
Site elements are identified and described. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Site elements refer to, but are not limited to, the components of a design, such as nurseries, water harvesting, orchards, aquaculture and other production areas. The site elements will differ from one context to another.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
Site resources are identified and described. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
Inputs and outputs for site resources are correctly listed. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
Inputs and outputs for site elements are correctly listed. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
Sources of water for use and storage are identified and described. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Water sources should include rainwater harvesting on slopes and/or roofs, sinking water into the ground using mulch pits, swales, contours, and boreholes, as well as from taps.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
Sources of energy to cook food and heat water are identified and described. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Energy sources should include but are not limited to, firewood, dung, the sun, the wind, and biogas.
 

SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
Perform routine tasks related to the use of biotic and abiotic resources under close supervision. 
OUTCOME RANGE 
Biotic resources refer to all living organisms. Abiotic resources refer to all aspects of the non-living environment and include, but are not limited to air, wind, sun, water, soil, and climate. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
A functional earthworm farm or compost heap is constructed. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
The role of bees in a plant production environment is described. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
An elementary, functional solar cooker or water-heating system is constructed. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
The application of wind harvesting systems is explained. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
The application of low-tech water harvesting systems is explained. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
Elementary biological pest control methods are applied. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Biological pest control methods may include, but are not restricted to developing predator habitats, companion planting and the preparation of organic teas.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
Liquid nutrients are prepared according to specific instructions. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Liquid nutrients may include, but are not restricted to, liquid manure, compost and comfrey tea.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
Sources, and potential sources, of water pollution are identified. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 9 
A range of area-specific invasive plant species is identified. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Invasive plant species refer to the list provided by the Department of Water Affairs and orestry.
 

SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
Recognise and describe ecological processes and cycles. 
OUTCOME RANGE 
Ecological processes refer to energy flow and food webs, succession, and edge effects. Cycles refer to the mineral and water cycles. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
The nitrogen cycle is explained. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
The oxygen cycle is explained. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
Energy flow is explained. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
The water cycle is explained. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
Food webs are described. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
Basic patterns are identified and explained. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
Basic edge effects are identified and explained. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
Basic global climatic patterns are identified. 

SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
Identify sustainable living practices. 
OUTCOME RANGE 
Sustainable living practices refer to the integration of social, economic, political and abstract components:
  • Social Components include but are not limited to: Innovative settlement patterns such as eco-villages; the use of appropriate technology (e.g. solar energy, biogas digesters, flow forms for water purification, ram pumps, and wind energy); the dissemination of knowledge, skills and information.
  • Economic components include, but are not limited to: Local Employment Trading Systems; the establishment of cooperative community markets; community-supported agriculture systems.
  • Political components include, but are not limited to: The development of cluster groups as forums for discussion, representation and innovation.
  • Abstract components include, but are not limited to: Timing and data -gathering and -dissemination. 

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Basic global economic trade systems in relation to the South African economy are identified. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The role that technology plays and its impact on the environment are described. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Unconventional settlement structures are identified. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Settlement structures include, but are not restricted to, eco-villages.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    A range of appropriate technology applications are identified and explained. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Alternative building techniques are identified and explained. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    The importance of grey water harvesting is explained. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    The role of biogas use and harvesting in relation to sustainable living is explained. 


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
    The assessment of qualifying learners against this standard should meet the requirements of established assessment principles.

    It will be necessary to develop assessment activities and tools, which are appropriate to the contexts in which the qualifying learners are working. These activities and tools may include an appropriate combination of self-assessment and peer assessment, formative and summative assessment, portfolios and observations etc.

    The assessment should ensure that all the specific outcomes, critical cross-field outcomes and essential embedded knowledge are assessed.

    The specific outcomes must be assessed through observation of performance. Supporting evidence should be used to prove competence of specific outcomes only when they are not clearly seen in the actual performance.

    Essential embedded knowledge must be assessed in its own right, through oral or written evidence and cannot be assessed only by being observed.

    The specific outcomes and essential embedded knowledge must be assessed in relation to each other. If a qualifying learner is able to explain the essential embedded knowledge but is unable to perform the specific outcomes, they should not be assessed as competent. Similarly, if a qualifying learner is able to perform the specific outcomes but is unable to explain or justify their performance in terms of the essential embedded knowledge, then thy should not be assessed as competent.

    Evidence of the specified critical cross-field outcomes should be found both in performance and in the essential embedded knowledge.

    Performance of specific outcomes must actively affirm target groups of qualifying learners, not unfairly discriminate against them. Qualifying learners should be able to justify their performance in terms of these values.
  • Anyone assessing a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant ETQA.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable achievement of this unit standard or assessing this unit standard must be accredited as a provider with the relevant ETQA.
  • Moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant ETQA according to the moderation guidelines in the relevant qualification and the agreed ETQA procedures. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    The person is able to demonstrate a basic knowledge of:
  • Ecological cycles.
  • Permaculture principles.
  • The names and functions of commonly used useful plants in the permaculture context.
  • The characteristics and life cycles of some soil organisms.
  • The role of solar radiation in the planet's ecology and climate. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Problem solving relates to Specific Outcome:
  • Perform routine tasks related to the use of biological and other available resources. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Teamwork relates to Specific Outcome:
  • Perform routine tasks related to the use of biological and other available resources. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Self-organisation and management relates to all Specific Outcomes. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Information evaluation relates to Specific Outcomes:
  • Identify site elements and resources and list their inputs and outputs.
  • Perform routine tasks related to the use of biological and other available resources.
  • Identify sustainable living practices. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communication relates to Specific Outcomes:
  • Identify site elements and resources and list their inputs and outputs.
  • Perform routine tasks related to the use of biological and other available resources.
  • Identify sustainable living practices. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Use science and technology relates to Specific Outcomes:
  • Perform routine tasks related to the use of biological and other available resources.
  • Identify sustainable living practices. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Inter-relatedness of systems relates to all Specific Outcomes. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO CONTRIBUTING 
    Self-development relates to Specific Outcomes:
  • Perform routine tasks related to the use of biological and other available resources.
  • Identify sustainable living practices. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    Supplementary Information

    Permaculture - A Designer's Manual, Tagari Publications, and Introduction to Permaculture, Tagari Publications, are used as the foundational texts for Permaculture Design. 

    QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Elective  48971   National Certificate: Mixed Farming Systems  Level 1  NQF Level 01  Reregistered  2023-06-30  AgriSETA 
    Elective  48972   National Certificate: Plant Production  Level 1  NQF Level 01  Reregistered  2023-06-30  AgriSETA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. Agri Skills Transfer (PTY) Ltd 
    2. Balemi Consulting Pty Ltd 
    3. Biofuels Business Incubators NPC 
    4. Bumunhu Services Providers Cc 
    5. Cedara College of Agriculture 
    6. CEDARS CONSULTANTS CC (Boksburg)(TP) 
    7. Deloitte 
    8. DEW CRISP PTY LTD 
    9. Dihwai Food Cultural and Agricultural Services 
    10. ELSENBURG AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 
    11. Escay Catering and other Services 
    12. Farm for Africa Training and Development 
    13. Food and Trees for Africa 
    14. Fort Cox Agricultural College 
    15. GA Community Care Consultants 
    16. Heedmorine Training 
    17. Impact Plus Training Consultants 
    18. Interstate Clearing 092 (Pty) Ltd 
    19. Intsukaze Training Center 
    20. Kgopane Trading Enterprise 
    21. Kimbali Holdings 
    22. KMK Training Services (PTY) Ltd 
    23. Kwevhos Business Enterprise 
    24. Leruo ke Matla Training and Enterprise Development Services 
    25. Lima Rural Development Foundation NPC 
    26. Longmore Training and Developen 
    27. Lovedale Public TVET College 
    28. Madzivhandila Agricultural College 
    29. Maishamalema Development Training 
    30. Mananthatshema Skills Dev. Centre 
    31. Marang Women in Agric and Development 
    32. Mathapuso Construction and Projects 
    33. Matlharini Multi Centre Skills 
    34. Matotomana Training & General Trading 
    35. Mbimbini Training and Community Development 
    36. Medu Skills Consultants 
    37. Mobile Agri Skills Development and Training NPC 
    38. Mogaladi Business Enterprise 
    39. Montshepetsa Bosui Farming & Training Cnt 
    40. Morwa Agri-development cc 
    41. Mpontshe Training 
    42. Mvelo Consultant 
    43. National Institute For The Deaf - NID 
    44. Ngwato Wa Mphela Agriculture Training Services 
    45. Nkalebetja Agricultural Projects and Management 
    46. Nophelo Training Centre 
    47. Novi General Services 
    48. Owen Sithole College of Agriculture 
    49. P N K Management Services 
    50. Phepha Consulting Services 
    51. Phill Skills and Development Institute 
    52. Progressive Environmental Projects 
    53. Retsogile Education and Training 
    54. SBJ Shadikamang Agriculture 
    55. Sekhukhune FET College - Central Office 
    56. Selipha Trading (Pty) Ltd 
    57. Setlakala Business Development 
    58. Seza Bantu Rural Agricultural Projects 
    59. Siyafundisa I Africa 
    60. Siyasanga Training Centre 
    61. Suidwes Beleggings Eiendoms Beperk 
    62. The Skills Development Hub (Pty) Ltd 
    63. Thuto Boshwa Skills Development Services 
    64. Thutong Learning College 
    65. Thutopele Skills Institute 
    66. Tinotsile Training and Development 
    67. Tlatlana Events Solution and Communication 
    68. TM Mashwara and Projects 
    69. Tompi Seleka Agricultural College 
    70. Tripple R Training Provider 
    71. Tshenkeng's Consulting 
    72. Umfolozi FET College 
    73. Unang Business Enterprise 
    74. Vari Holdings (Pty)Ltd 
    75. Voyano Project Management 
    76. Westco Agri Training 
    77. Working Decisions Cc 
    78. Zelpy 1382 (edms) Bpk 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.