SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of supply and demand, and the concept: production 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
13998  Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of supply and demand, and the concept: production 
ORIGINATOR
Interim SGB for Business, Commerce, Mgmnt Studies 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 03 - Business, Commerce and Management Studies Generic Management 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
ABET Level 4  Regular  Level 1  NQF Level 01 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
A candidate credited with this general competence will be able to: demonstrate an understanding of production, and its impact on the South African economy. 

LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
ABET Level 3. 

Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of supply and demand. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
1. The concept of supply and demand of goods and services is identified and discussed. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
2. Factors impacting on supply and demand are outlined. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Seasons ; Consumer behaviour, cost of production, etc.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
3. The link between price and supply and demand is explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Seasons ; Consumer behaviour, cost of production, etc.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
4. An understanding of price determination is demonstrated. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Production cost, overheads, marketing expenses, etc.
 

SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
Demonstrate an understanding of the factors of production. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
1. The concept production is explained. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
2. Factors of production are discussed. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Land, Labour, Capital, Entrepreneurship
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
3. An understanding of the factors of production is demonstrated practically. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Case study, etc.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
4. The importance of production is discussed. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Satisfy needs, create wealth, to be self sufficient
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
5. The role of technology in production is debated. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Positive: mass production, cost effective etc. Negative: leads to unemployment, health hazards etc.
 

SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of the factors of production on the South African Economy 

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
1. The impact of labour on the South African Economy is discussed. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Ratio of skilled to unskilled labour, rising unemployment, migrant labour, labour demands, living wages, etc.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
2. The factors underlying the scarcity of land are explored. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Imbalances in land ownership, geographical factors, etc.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
3. The flow of capital in the South African Economy is investigated. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Investment flow, exchange rates, role of Reserve Bank, etc.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
4. The impact of entrepreneurial skills on the South African Economy is debated. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Positive: Improvement of SA Economy, creation of wealth ; etc. Negative: Unemployment, Lack of skills, etc.
 


UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
Exchange rates
Price determination
Remuneration for each factor of production. 

UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
1. Reflecting on and exploring a variety of strategies to learn more effectively;
2. Participating as responsible citizens in the life of local, national and global communities;
3. Being culturally and aesthetically sensitive across a range of social contexts;
4. Exploring education and career opportunities; and
5. Developing entrepreneurial opportunities. 


Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
Identify and solve problems in which responses display that responsible decisions using critical and creative thinking have been made. 

UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
Work effectively with others as a member of a team, group, organisation and community. 

UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
Organise and manage oneself and one`s activities responsibly and effectively. 

UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information. 

UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
Communicate effectively using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written presentation. 

UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
Use science and technology effectively and critically, showing responsibility towards the environments and health of others. 

UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation. 

REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
  ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
Core  24153   General Education and Training Certificate: Adult Basic Education and Training  Level 1  NQF Level 01  Passed the End Date -
Status was "Reregistered" 
2008-09-13  Was ETDP SETA until Last Date for Achievement 
Core  50584   General Education and Training Certificate: Clothing Manufacturing Processes  Level 1  NQF Level 01  Reregistered  2023-06-30  FPMSETA 
Core  50225   General Education and Training Certificate: General Forestry  Level 1  NQF Level 01  Reregistered  2023-06-30  FPMSETA 
Core  65969   General Education and Training Certificate: Human Settlements Development  Level 1  NQF Level 01  Reregistered  2023-06-30  CETA 
Core  49082   GETC: Wood Products Processing  Level 1  NQF Level 01  Reregistered  2023-06-30  FPMSETA 
Core  23253   National Certificate (GETC): Manufacturing, Engineering and Related Activities  Level 1  NQF Level 01  Reregistered  2023-06-30  MERSETA 
Core  20287   National Certificate: Farming  Level 1  NQF Level 01  Reregistered  2023-06-30  AgriSETA 
Core  24198   National Certificate: Construction Material Manufacturing  Level 2  NQF Level 02  Reregistered  2023-06-30  CETA 
Core  20893   National Certificate: Human Resources Management and Practices Support  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Passed the End Date -
Status was "Registered" 
2005-02-13  Was SABPP until Last Date for Achievement 
Core  21728   National Certificate: Labour Recruitment Consultancy  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Passed the End Date -
Status was "Registered" 
2004-06-12  SERVICES 
Elective  48642   General Education and Training Certificate Housing: Housing Consumer Education  Level 1  NQF Level 01  Passed the End Date -
Status was "Reregistered" 
2009-05-13  Was CETA until Last Date for Achievement 
Elective  71751   General Education and Training Certificate: Adult Basic Education and Training  Level 1  NQF Level 01  Reregistered  2023-06-30  As per Learning Programmes recorded against this Qual 
Elective  73249   General Education and Training Certificate: Adult Basic Education and Training: Academic Curriculum  Level 1  NQF Level 01  Reregistered  2023-06-30  UMALUSI 
Elective  20183   National Certificate: Banking  Level 2  NQF Level 02  Passed the End Date -
Status was "Reregistered" 
2015-06-30  BANKSETA 
Elective  20654   National Certificate: Craft Bread and Flour Confectionery Baking  Level 2  NQF Level 02  Passed the End Date -
Status was "Reregistered" 
2006-04-20  Was FOODBEV until Last Date for Achievement 
Elective  20288   National Certificate: Farming  Level 2  NQF Level 02  Reregistered  2023-06-30  AgriSETA 
Elective  20657   National Certificate: Food and Beverage Processing: Plant Baking Processing  Level 2  NQF Level 02  Passed the End Date -
Status was "Reregistered" 
2009-02-18  Was FOODBEV until Last Date for Achievement 
Elective  64029   National Certificate: Food Processing: Plant Baking  Level 2  NQF Level 02  Reregistered  2023-06-30  FOODBEV 
Elective  20214   National Certificate: Food and Beverage Processing: Dairy Primary Processing  Level 3  NQF Level 03  Passed the End Date -
Status was "Registered" 
2004-12-05  Was FOODBEV until Last Date for Achievement 


PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
 
1. 1 Classie Africa 
2. A Z Community Services 
3. African Apex Apparel (Pty) Ltd 
4. AL Development Services cc 
5. Amasiko Trading Enterprise 
6. Aniathu Trading (Pty) Ltd 
7. AQUILA TRAINING 
8. Aranda Textile Mills Pty Ltd 
9. Arden School of Management (Pty) Ltd 
10. Assured Vocational Skills Institute (Pty) Ltd 
11. Avad Projects (Pty) Ltd 
12. Ayasaphe Trading cc 
13. Bakgoni Empowerment Centre (Pty) Ltd 
14. Balemi Consulting Pty Ltd 
15. Better beginning trading and projects pty ltd 
16. Big Tree Group (Pty) Ltd 
17. Bokamoso Competence (Pty) Ltd 
18. Bonenhle Investments 
19. Bontham Training & Agricultural Consultants 
20. Bosasa Youth Development Centres (Pty) Ltd 
21. Breakeven 59(PTY) Ltd 
22. BT Group of Companies (Pty) Ltd 
23. Btech 
24. Camblish Training Institute (Pty) Ltd 
25. CANDYS UNLIMITED COLLECTION Pty Ltd 
26. Cape Business & Engineering College (Pty) Ltd 
27. Cape Town Workbased Learning Academy 
28. Capricorn TVET College 
29. Changing Women 
30. Chippa Training Academy (Pty) Ltd 
31. Circleway College 
32. CKWEI Clothing (Pty) Ltd 
33. CMO Logistics Pty Ltd 
34. Coastal Kzn F.E.T. College - Swinton Road Campus 
35. College of Cape Town - Athlone Campus 
36. Continental Tyres SA (Pty) Ltd (NEW BRIGHTON) (TP) 
37. Cradle Stars Trading Enterprise (Pty) Ltd 
38. Cre8tion Projects 6 PTY LTD 
39. CRK Designs (Pty) Ltd 
40. Cumlaude Institute (PTY) Ltd 
41. Dinaka Business Management & Consulting 
42. DITEBOGO CONSULTANCY CC 
43. Dlabane Investment Holdings (Pty) Ltd 
44. Dlamini The Siba PTY LTD 
45. Do It Again Academy (Pty) Ltd 
46. Dr M Investments 
47. Duzi-Corp 56 
48. Ekurhuleni Artisans & Skills Training Centre (Pty) Ltd 
49. Elimofo Trading& Projects 
50. Esayidi FET College - Central Office 
51. ETS Emergency Training Solutions (Pty) Ltd 
52. Faithworks Development Consultants (Pty) Ltd 
53. FALSE BAY TECHNICAL VOCATIONAL EDUCATION & TRAINING COLLEGE 
54. Fezile Fashion Skills Academy (Pty) Ltd 
55. Flavious Mareka TVET College 
56. Forthwawe Business Centre 
57. Fundakahle Multi-Purpose Co-operative Limited 
58. Furniture World Training Centre 
59. Future Discovery Training Academy CC 
60. Future Dynamics Learning 
61. Gauteng City College 
62. Gia Development Trades 
63. Glicam Trading Enterprise 
64. Grandstar Projects 
65. Green Earth Training & Development (Pty) Ltd 
66. Green Enviro & Projects (Pty)Ltd 
67. Greenrim Training 
68. GT Design 
69. HHO Enterprise 
70. HLUVUKA TRAINING AND CONSULTING 
71. Honey Cube Projects & Services (Pty) Ltd 
72. Hoseah Training and Manufacturing NPC 
73. Hot To Go Training College and Services 
74. I Care Resource Centre 
75. Ikamvelihle Youth Development (Pty) Ltd 
76. Imara Umbono Incorporated (Pty) Ltd 
77. Imbewu Development Institute (Pty) Ltd 
78. Impela Trading cc 
79. In House Media Instruction 
80. In Time Industrial (Pty) Ltd 
81. Inafrica General Trading Pty LTD 
82. Inter-Coastal Business & Property Services cc 
83. INTERACTIVE TUTOR (PTY) LIMITED 
84. INTERMASIKO CC 
85. Intuthuko Yesizwe Community Organisation 
86. Inyathi Visions 
87. Ithemba Lomphakathi Community Organisation 
88. Izintombizekhethelo (Pty) Ltd 
89. Jeppe College of Commerce and Computer Studies 
90. JMC TECHNICAL TRAINING (Bloemfontein)(TP) 
91. Jumpstart Training Institute (Pty) Ltd 
92. kagisho Business Concepts (Pty) Ltd 
93. Kelmik Training Centre (Pty) Ltd 
94. Kingdom Varsity College (Pty) Ltd 
95. Kingsbury International College (SA) 
96. Knoop Academy NPC 
97. Kotton Wear (Pty) Ltd 
98. Kusabelele Investments 
99. Kwamahlati Training Services cc 
100. KWEM Management Solutions 
101. La Gratitude Academy 
102. Legal Environment Safety & Health Requirements cc 
103. Lembede Investment Holdings (Pty) Ltd 
104. Leronsa Trading Enterprise 
105. Letaba TVET College 
106. LFS DESIGNS 
107. Liston Agri Solution & Training Consultancy 
108. LLSM (Pty) Ltd 
109. Longata Consultant 
110. Lucky Neo (Pty) Ltd 
111. Lwaziphezinhle (Pty) Ltd 
112. Maboko Skill Development & Projects 
113. Malitinne (Pty) Ltd 
114. Maluti TVET College 
115. Mananthatshema Skills Dev. Centre 
116. Matatiele Fashion Design Academy (Pty) Ltd 
117. Mberwana Trading Enterprise 
118. Mbimbini Training and Community Development 
119. Meals on Wheels Community Services - South Africa 
120. Mearnsii Trading cc 
121. Mgadaveni Training Projects (Pty) Ltd 
122. MICROMATICA 384 (PTY) LTD 
123. Mlasimbi Catering Primary Co-operative Limited 
124. MMBG Trading & Consulting 
125. Mnambithi TVET College 
126. Modiehi Consulting & Projects (Pty) Ltd 
127. MORTERBOARD TRAINING SOLUTIONS (PTY) LTD 
128. Mphahle Consultancy (Pty) Ltd 
129. Mugazi Consultancy cc 
130. Mukwevho Training and Development 
131. Mwanga Training & Consulting (Pty) Ltd 
132. NDIMASE TRADING 
133. Nedbank Ltd 
134. NELLY-SGUEEJE TRADING 
135. New Business Initiative Management Consultancy 
136. New Heights 1082 
137. Ngaphakathi Investments 
138. Ngcebo Consulting (Pty) Ltd 
139. Nhlanzi Investments (Pty) Ltd 
140. Nikwe Trading (Pty) Ltd 
141. Nkulungwane General Trader cc 
142. Nolwazi Dev Centre (Pty) Ltd 
143. Nomzumbe Trading & Projects (Pty) Ltd 
144. Northlink College 
145. Nosino Projects (Pty) Ltd 
146. Nteko Investments 
147. Ntuthuko Projects & Services 
148. Nurture-Nature Resources (Pty) Ltd 
149. Nurtured Minds Trading (Pty) Ltd 
150. Optimi Workplace 
151. Optimum Capacity (Pty) Ltd 
152. OTP 
153. Oyama Kulwazi Training & Consulting (Pty) Ltd 
154. Pectosource (Pty) Ltd 
155. Penny Lane Fashion School (Pty) Ltd 
156. Phambile Skills Training (Pty) Ltd 
157. PIONEER VOEDSEL (PTY) LTD 
158. Platorand Training Centre 
159. Port Elizabeth Draughting Academy & Trading cc T/A PE Draughting Acade 
160. Positive Thinking Consultants CC 
161. Practice Makes Perfect Training Centre 
162. Premier Agric (Pty) Ltd 
163. Prempie Business Solutions (Pty) Ltd 
164. Prispiri (Pty) Ltd 
165. Production Management Institute 
166. Production Management Institute of Southern Africa (PMI) - Johannesburg 
167. PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE SA PTY LTD (PORT ELIZABETH) 
168. Professional Development and Training Institute (Pty) Ltd 
169. Professional Training Institute (Pty) Ltd 
170. Progressive School of Business and Engineering (Pty) 
171. Qualfurn Training & Projects 
172. Rally Business Consulting PTY LTD 
173. Re Tshepeng Holdings 
174. Redefined Skills Training & Development (Pty) Ltd 
175. Rekopane Training Centre CC 
176. RI A LINDA SECURITY SOLUTIONS 
177. RJM Investments 
178. Royal Express 
179. RUBICON COMMUNICATIONS 
180. Russel Meaker cc 
181. Sabela Learning Academy 
182. Seacrest Investments 156 (Pty) Ltd 
183. Sedibeng TVET College 
184. Sekhukhune FET College - Central Office 
185. SEOPOSENGOE TRAINING CONSULTANCY CC 
186. Setlakala Business Development 
187. Sew Africa Training Centre 
188. Sibalwethu Consultants (Pty) Ltd 
189. Sibonguthando Projects And Services Cc 
190. Silalele Consultants (Pty) Ltd 
191. Silungokuhle (Pty) Ltd 
192. Sinovuyolethu Trading (Pty) Ltd 
193. Siyasanga Training Centre 
194. Souls 4 Life Trading (Pty) Ltd 
195. South African Advanced Skills Institute 
196. SOUTH AFRICAN FASHION DESIGNER AGENCY 
197. South African Forestry Training College 
198. South Cape Public FET College - George Campus 
199. South West Gauteng Tvet College 
200. STUDIO 05 HOUSE OF FASHION 
201. Sunrise Skills Training 
202. Swift Skills Academy (SASOLBURG) (TP) 
203. T Mdlatu Trading Enterprise cc 
204. Take Note Trading 227 cc 
205. Talent for Sewing 
206. Taletso FET College - Central Office 
207. Tebkhan Investments (Pty) Ltd 
208. Tembe Service Providers 
209. ThabileTrade 1054 cc 
210. The Brokers Learning Centre 
211. The Finishing College (Pty) Ltd 
212. The Institute of Fashion and Garment Technology (Pty) Ltd 
213. The Skills Development Hub (Pty) Ltd 
214. Thitha Training and Development Services 
215. Thunderflex3 Pty (Ltd) 
216. Thuto Skills Development 
217. Tirhani SkillsTraining Pty Ltd 
218. Tiriso Investments 
219. Tlhole Foundation (PTY) LTD 
220. Trade Call Investments Apparel (Pty) LTD 
221. Trade Call Investments Apparel (Pty) Ltd (Mobeni) 
222. Train Learn and Develop Ltd 
223. True Ruby Trading 1021 cc 
224. Try Easy Electrical Solutions 
225. Tshwane North College 
226. U AND G TRAINING (PTY) LTD 
227. Ubucubu Home Industries 
228. Ubuhle Bengcebo 
229. Udumo Services & Projects 
230. Udumo Training & Develoment (Pty) Ltd 
231. Ukubhukuda Trading & Projects 165 
232. Umfolozi TVET College (Richards Bay) 
233. Umgano Foundation (NPC) 
234. Umlozi Skills Centre (Pty) Ltd 
235. Umnotho We Afrika Foundation NPC 
236. Umunotho Wealth Management Pty Ltd 
237. Uyabusisa Arts and Development Pty Ltd 
238. Valotech 274 (Pty) Ltd 
239. Value at Hand (Pty) Ltd 
240. VEB CELE & Associates (Pty) Ltd 
241. Vhembe TVET College 
242. Vicmat Consultants 
243. Vijay Bhagwan Consultancy and Solutions cc 
244. VINE APPAREL (PTY)LTD 
245. Visionary Skill Academy 
246. VPK BUSINESS VENTURE C C 
247. Vuliqgondo Research & Manufacturing Centre 
248. Wattville Community Learning College 
249. Western Cape Clothing and Textiles Service Centre 
250. Westrand Graduate Institute Training and Engineering (Pty) Ltd 
251. Wilratty Consultants (Pty) Ltd 
252. Womens Leadership & Empowerment Initiative 
253. World Pace Development & Training Institute (Pty) Ltd 
254. World Pace Development and Training Institute 
255. Yahweh Shammah Socio-Economic Development 
256. Yangantle Trading 
257. York Timbers Pty Ltd 
258. ZUCRO PROJECT CC 



All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.