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SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED QUALIFICATION: 

Further Education and Training Certificate: Dairy Manufacturing Technology 
SAQA QUAL ID QUALIFICATION TITLE
50306  Further Education and Training Certificate: Dairy Manufacturing Technology 
ORIGINATOR ORIGINATING PROVIDER
SGB Food Manufacturing   
QUALITY ASSURING BODY NQF SUB-FRAMEWORK
FOODBEV - Food and Beverages Manufacturing Industry Sector Education and Training Authority  OQSF - Occupational Qualifications Sub-framework 
QUALIFICATION TYPE FIELD SUBFIELD
Further Ed and Training Cert  Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology  Manufacturing and Assembly 
ABET BAND MINIMUM CREDITS PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL QUAL CLASS
Undefined  120  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Regular-Unit Stds Based 
REGISTRATION STATUS SAQA DECISION NUMBER REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE
Reregistered  SAQA 0695/12  2012-07-01  2015-06-30 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2016-06-30   2019-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This qualification replaces: 
Qual ID Qualification Title Pre-2009 NQF Level NQF Level Min Credits Replacement Status
20514  National Certificate: Food and Beverage Manufacturing Technology: Sweetened Condensed Milk Products Technologist  Level 4  NQF Level 04  130  Complete 
20515  National Certificate: Food and Beverage Manufacturing Technology: Ripened Cheese Technologist  Level 4  NQF Level 04  130  Complete 
20516  National Certificate: Food and Beverage Manufacturing Technology: Butter and Butter Related Spreads Technologist  Level 4  NQF Level 04  130  Complete 
20517  National Certificate: Food and Beverage Manufacturing Technology: Processed Cheese Technologist  Level 4  NQF Level 04  120  Complete 
20518  National Certificate: Food and Beverage Manufacturing Technology: Liquid Long Life Dairy Products Technologist  Level 4  NQF Level 04  130  Complete 
20519  National Certificate: Food and Beverage Manufacturing Technology: Frozen Ice Cream and Frozen Ice Cream Related Products Technologist  Level 4  NQF Level 04  130  Complete 
20520  National Certificate: Food and Beverage Manufacturing Technology: Fermented Dairy Products Technologist  Level 4  NQF Level 04  120  Complete 
20521  National Certificate: Food and Beverage Manufacturing Technology: Dried Dairy Products Technologist  Level 4  NQF Level 04  150  Complete 
20553  National Certificate: Food and Beverage Manufacturing Technology: Cottage Cheese Technologist  Level 4  NQF Level 04  130  Complete 

PURPOSE AND RATIONALE OF THE QUALIFICATION 
Purpose:

The purpose of this qualification is to ensure that the person who does dairy product manufacturing will be able to manufacture safe, quality assured and hygienically packaged dairy products from raw materials, within the specialisation area(s) of his/her choice. The range of dairy products for specialisation purposes includes the following:
  • Ripened cheese.
  • Cottage cheese.
  • Processed cheese.
  • Fermented dairy products.
  • Dried dairy products.
  • Liquid long life dairy products.
  • Condensed milk products.
  • Butter and butter-related products.
  • Frozen ice cream and frozen ice cream and related dairy products.

    Through this qualification the learner will be able to take part in quality control practices within the manufacturing environment and will thereby contribute to the overall quality assurance procedures and quality management system within his/her work environment.

    Portable competencies such as cleaning and sanitising of the manufacturing system will also be obtained. The person will be able to apply all relevant personal safety and food safety practices during the performance of his/her tasks. Portability is further enhanced in this qualification by the different specialisation options offered, i.e. after completion of the qualification, a person will be competent in one area of specialisation but one specialisation area will allow for portability to eight other specialisations.

    This qualification will allow a person to have access to education, training and career paths within the dairy and food industries, ensuring learning mobility and progression on the framework through articulation with other qualifications. This qualification will enhance the social, economic and personal development of the learner, as well as the sustainability and productivity of the dairy industry. The qualification will accelerate the redress of past unfair discrimination in education, training and employment opportunities.

    Rationale of the qualification:

    There were previously nine different registered qualifications in dairy manufacturing technology, namely:
  • The National Certificate in Food and Beverage Manufacturing Technology: Ripened Cheese technologist NQF4 (20515);
  • The National Certificate in Food and Beverage Manufacturing Technology: Cottage Cheese technologist NQF4 (20553);
  • The National Certificate in Food and Beverage Manufacturing Technology: Processed Cheese technologist NQF4 (20517);
  • The National Certificate in Food and Beverage Manufacturing Technology: Fermented Dairy Products technologist NQF4 (20520);
  • The National Certificate in Food and Beverage Manufacturing Technology: Liquid Long Life Dairy Products technologist NQF4 (20518);
  • The National Certificate in Food and Beverage Manufacturing Technology: Sweetened Milk Products technologist NQF4 (20514);
  • The National Certificate in Food and Beverage Manufacturing Technology: Dried Dairy Products technologist NQF4 (20521);
  • The National Certificate in Food and Beverage Manufacturing Technology: Butter and Butter Related Products technologist NQF4 (20516);
  • The National Certificate in Food and Beverage Manufacturing Technology: Frozen Ice Cream and Frozen Ice Cream Related Products technologist NQF4 (20519).

    Due to certain commonalities in the dairy manufacturing industry the need arose to integrate all the above-mentioned qualifications into one single qualification with specialisation options. It is therefore the aim of this qualification to address the combined skills needs of the dairy manufacturing industry as a whole.

    This qualification reflects the workplace-based needs of the food industry that are expressed by employers and employees, both now and for the future. Typical learners would be persons who are currently working in a dairy manufacturing environment who have not received any formal recognition for their skills and knowledge, as well as workers that are progressing from other areas in a dairy environment into dairy manufacturing. Learners may also include new entrants to the dairy manufacturing industry.

    This qualification is also a revised and updated version of the 11 similar qualifications developed by the dairy industry during the 1990s as a result of the demand in the dairy industry for national recognition for workers in dairy manufacturing technology. These 11 former qualifications in dairy manufacturing technology were respectively registered with the Department of Labour from 1990-1998, whereafter they were registered with SAQA until now as interimly registered dairy qualifications on Level 4. They are:
  • National Certificate: Butter Manufacturing (NLRD 17287)
  • National Certificate: Condensed Milk Preparation (NLRD 10835)
  • National Certificate: Cottage Cheese Preparation (NLRD 17284)
  • National Certificate: Dairy Powder Manufacturing (NLRD 10829)
  • National Certificate: Fermented Dairy Products Preparation (NLRD 10817)
  • National Certificate: Fresh Dairy Product Preparation (NLRD 17282)
  • National Certificate: Gouda and Cheddar Cheese Manufacturing (NLRD 10827)
  • National Certificate: Pasta Filata and Grana Type Cheese Manufacturing (NLRD 17288)
  • National Certificate: Processed Cheese Making (NLRD 10837)
  • National Certificate: Steri Processing (NLRD 17285)
  • National Certificate: UHT Processing (NLRD 10823)

    The first nine versions of the unit standards-based National Certificates in Dairy Manufacturing Technology NQF4 listed first, were registered with SAQA in 2001, and included one additional skills need that was identified, namely that of Frozen Ice Cream and Frozen Ice Cream Related Product Manufacturing. This combined qualification serves as the revised version of the former nine registered unit standards based-qualifications in dairy manufacturing technology.

    This qualification aims at providing formal recognition for competencies already obtained but not yet recognised and will continue to do so by providing recognition for workers in the dairy industry, specifically in dairy manufacturing technology. In addition, this qualification provides the new entrant with the opportunity to obtain competencies in dairy product manufacturing within the workplace. In this way, value is added to workers' employability and competence and the sustainability of the dairy industry is improved.

    This qualification provides the learner with the skills and knowledge to be employed within the dairy manufacturing industry with possibility of articulation into areas of quality control and assurance, laboratory analysis, packaging and other areas of food manufacturing technology (non-dairy). The range of electives will allow the learner to pursue a career within a laboratory, quality control/assurance or packaging environment. Skilled workers are one of the key players in better manufacturing standards and productivity, which may increase business prosperity. This qualification will assist in social and economic transformation.

    There are currently skills shortages in dairy manufacturing technology in South Africa and since South Africa is now being considered as an opportunity for dairy exports to Europe, the demand for dairy manufacturing skills and competencies is increasing.

    The secondary focus of the qualification is on product quality and food safety and therefore this qualification will contribute to the establishment of workplace competencies that will ensure food products that are healthy and safe for human consumption. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    It is assumed that learners are already competent in:
  • Communication at NQF Level 3.
  • Mathematical Literacy at NQF Level 3.
  • Natural science and technology principles at NQF level 3.
  • Application of personal safety practices in a manufacturing environment.
  • Application of hygiene and health practices.
  • Knowledge and application of cleaning-in-place (CIP) and cleaning-out-of-place (COP).
  • Knowledge and application of pasteurisation/vaccreation/thermisation.
  • Knowledge and application of fat standardization.
  • Knowledge and application of cream separation.
  • Knowledge and comprehension of homogenisation (compulsory only for manufacturing processes that require homogenisation).
  • Application of food safety practices.

    Recognition of prior learning:

    This qualification may be achieved in part or completely through RPL, which includes formal, informal and non-formal learning and work experience.

    Access to the qualification:

    Access to this qualification is open bearing in mind learning assumed to be in place. 

  • RECOGNISE PREVIOUS LEARNING? 

    QUALIFICATION RULES 
    In the compulsory Fundamental component of the qualification, a learner must demonstrate his/her competence in the 20 credits of Communication (First Language), plus the 20 credits of Communication (Second Language), plus the 16 credits of Mathematical Literacy (total of 56 credits).

    The Core component of the qualification consists of three unit standards which are equally applicable to all nine different specializations. These three unit standards contribute a total of 28 credits to the qualification and are compulsory for all learners.

    The Elective component of the qualification consists of five groups of unit standards.

    The first group entails compulsory unit standards per specialization (A1 - A9). The learner will have to undertake learning towards all the unit standards for the specialization.

    The second group entails additional, varied-focus, manufacturing technology unit standards for five of the nine specializations (B1 - B5). The learner will have to undertake learning towards his/her choice of at least one of the unit standards in this elective group, relevant to the specializations for which this group of unit standards are applicable.

    The third group entails laboratory analyses unit standards. The learner will have to undertake learning towards one or more unit standard(s) from this group (C), relevant to the specialization, to attain at least 10 credits.

    The fourth group entails packaging unit standards. The learner will have to undertake learning towards at least one unit standard from this group (D), relevant to the specialization.

    The fifth group (E) entails optional, manufacturing related unit standards. The learner may exercise the option to choose none, any or all of the unit standards per specialization.

    The learner must choose one group to specialise in and do all the unit standards listed for that specialisation:

    A1. Ripened cheese:

    Compulsory unit standards (choose all of the following three unit standards):
  • 123303: "Demonstrate an understanding of the connection between milk constituents, syneresis and moisture control in cheese curd", Level 4, 8 credits.
  • 123307: "Coagulate milk or a dairy mixture for the manufacturing of a fermented product", Level 4, 20 credits.
  • 123287: "Evaluate the sensory quality of cheese", Level 4, 8 credits.
  • Total: 36 credits.

    A2. Cottage cheese:

    Compulsory unit standards (choose all of the following four unit standards):
  • 123303: "Demonstrate an understanding of the connection between milk constituents, syneresis and moisture control in cheese curd" Level 4, 8 credits.
  • 123307: "Coagulate milk or a dairy mixture for the manufacturing of a fermented product", Level 4, 20 credits.
  • 123286: "Evaluate the sensory quality of cottage cheese", Level 4, 5 credits.
  • 123313: "Manufacture smooth or chunky cottage cheese from coagulated milk", Level 4, 25 credits.
  • Total: 58 credits.

    A3. Processed cheese:

    Compulsory unit standards (choose all of the following three unit standards):
  • 123351: "Manufacture processed cheese", Level 4, 20 credits.
  • 123300: "Evaluate the sensory quality of processed cheese", Level 4, 5 credits.
  • 123287: "Evaluate the sensory quality of cheese", Level 4, 8 credits.
  • Total: 33 credits.

    A4. Fermented dairy products:

    Compulsory unit standards (choose both of the following two unit standards):
  • 123307: "Coagulate milk or a dairy mixture for the manufacturing of a fermented product", Level 4, 20 credits.
  • 123305: "Evaluate the sensory quality of fermented dairy products", Level 4, 6 credits.
  • Total: 26 credits.

    A5. Dried dairy products:

    Compulsory unit standards (choose both of the following two unit standards):
  • 123349: "Evaporate a liquid food product using a falling or rising film evaporator", Level 4, 20 credits.
  • 123288: "Evaluate the sensory quality of dried dairy products", Level 4, 5 credits.
  • Total: 25 credits.

    A6. Liquid long life dairy products:

    Compulsory unit standard:
  • 123289: "Evaluate the sensory quality of liquid long life dairy products", Level 4, 5 credits.

    A7. Condensed milk products:

    Compulsory unit standards (choose both of the following two unit standards):
  • 123349: "Evaporate a liquid food product using a falling or rising film evaporator", Level 4, 20 credits.
  • 123296: "Evaluate the sensory quality of condensed milk products", Level 4, 5 credits.
  • 123308: "Perform controlled lactose crystallisation in sweetened condensed milk or concentrated whey", Level 3, 8 credits.
  • Total: 33 credits.

    A8. Butter and butter related products:

    Compulsory unit standards (choose both of the following two unit standards):
  • 123283: "Evaluate the sensory quality of butter", Level 4, 6 credits.
  • 120240: "Evaluate the sensory quality of pasteurised milk, cream or fruit milk mixtures", Level 3, 5 credits.
  • Total:11 credits.

    A9. Frozen ice cream or ice cream related products:

    Compulsory unit standards (choose both of the following two unit standards):
  • 123297: "Manufacture a frozen dairy ice cream or ice cream related product", Level 4, 15 credits.
  • 123290: "Evaluate the sensory quality of frozen dairy ice cream or ice cream related products", Level 4, 5 credits.
  • Total: 20 credits.

    The learner must choose at least one unit standard listed for the specialisation chosen by the learner in section A:

    B1. Ripened Cheese:

    Choose at least one of the following unit standards:
  • 123354: "Manufacture a Cheddar type cheese from coagulated milk.", Level 4, 30 credits.
  • 123311: "Manufacture a Gouda or Grana type cheese from coagulated milk", Level 4, 30 credits.
  • 123358: "Manufacture a Mozzarella type cheese from coagulated milk.", Level 4, 30 credits.

    B2. Dried dairy products:

    Choose at least one of the following unit standards:
  • 123355: "Manufacture a dry food product by means of a roller dryer.", Level 4, 30 credits.
  • 123356: "Manufacture a spray dried food powder from an evaporated mixture.", Level 4, 30 credits.

    B3. Liquid long life dairy products:

    Choose at least one of the following unit standards:
  • 123309: "Manufacture a sterilised food product by means of a retort", Level 4, 20 credits.
  • 123350: "Manufacture a sterilised food product by means of a steri-tower", Level 4, 20 credits.
  • 123310: "Manufacture a UHT food product", Level 4, 20 credits.

    B4. Condensed milk products:

    Choose at least one of the following unit standards:
  • 123309: "Manufacture a sterilised food product by means of a retort", Level 4, 20 credits.
  • 123350: "Manufacture a sterilised food product by means of a steri-tower", Level 4, 20 credits.

    B5. Butter and Butter related products:

    Choose at least one of the following unit standards:
  • 123346: "Manufacture butter with a continuous butter making machine", Level 4, 25 credits.
  • 123293: "Manufacture butter by means of a batch churn", Level 4, 25 credits.

    The Learner must choose unit standards totalling at least 10 credits related to the specialisation chosen:

    C. Laboratory Analyses:

    Choose a minimum of 10 credits, relevant to the specialization:
  • 120411: "Evaluate the quality of a food product in terms of its pH", Level 3, 4 credits.
  • 120241: "Evaluate the quality of a dairy product in terms of its fat content, as determined by the Gerber or Babcock fat determination method", Level 3, 5 credits.
  • 123284: "Evaluate the quality of a food product in terms of its fat content as determined by an ether extraction method", Level 3, 5 credits.
  • 123277: "Evaluate the quality of a food product in terms of its total solids content using an oven drying method", Level 3, 4 credits.
  • 120400:" Evaluate the quality of milk in terms of its solids-non-fat content", Level 3, 4 credits.
  • 120408: "Evaluate the quality of milk in terms of its freezing point", Level 3, 4 credits.
  • 120236: "Evaluate the efficiency of homogenisation of a liquid dairy product", Level 3, 4 credits.
  • 123282: "Evaluate the quality of cheese in terms of its salt content", Level 3, 5 credits.
  • 123280: "Evaluate the quality of a food product in terms of its viscosity", Level 3, 4 credits.
  • 123275: "Evaluate the quality of a dairy powder in terms of its moisture content, as indicated by the Toluene distillation method", Level 3, 5 credits.
  • 123291: "Evaluate the quality of instant milk powder in terms of its dispersibility", Level 3 3 credits.
  • 123292: "Evaluate the quality of a dairy powder in terms of its bulk density" Level 3, 3 credits.
  • 123276: "Evaluate the fat-, salt-, moisture- and solids-non-fat-content of butter as indicated by the Kohman test", Level 3, 5 credits.
  • 123285: "Evaluate the extent of saturation of butterfat (in cream or butter), as indicated by its iodine value", Level 4, 4 credits.
  • 123294: "Evaluate the quality of a food product in terms of its Brix-value", Level 3, 3 credits.
  • 123302: "Evaluate the sensory quality of lactic acid fermented cereal-based beverages", Level 4, 6 credits.

    D. Packaging:

    The learner must Choose the relevant packaging unit standard(s) as required by the chosen specialization:
  • 120258: "Operate and control the forming, filling and hermetic sealing of gable top or brick type cartons for food products", Level 3, 12 credits.
  • 120256: "Operate and control the forming, filling and hermetic sealing of plastic sachets or bags for food products", Level 3, 10 credits.
  • 123312: "Operate and control the filling and sealing of cans for food products", Level 3, 12 credits.
  • 123347: "Operate and control the forming and wrapping of a brick or cube shaped food product", Level 3, 10 credits.
  • 120233: "Operate and control the filling and closing of glass or rigid plastic containers for food products", Level 3, 10 credits.
  • 123298: "Operate and control the wrapping and sealing of individual food product units:", Level 3, 8 credits.
  • 123301: "Operate and control the individual wrapping of process cheese portions", Level 3, 12 credits.
  • 123306: "Operate and control the aseptic forming, filling and sealing of containers for food products", Level 3, 18 credits.

    E. Optional Manufacturing Technology:

    These unit standards are optional and may be chosen in any combination as required by the specialization:
  • 8875: "Enrobe confectionery products", Level 3, 8 credits.
  • 8880: "Manufacture wafer products", Level 4, 20 credits.
  • 123304: "Mould a frozen dairy ice cream or ice cream related product", Level 3, 7 credits.
  • 123353: "Prepare a bulk starter culture for the manufacturing of fermented dairy products or cheese", Level 4, 8 credits.
  • 123307: "Coagulate milk or a dairy mixture for the manufacturing of a fermented product", Level 4, 20 credits.
  • 123308: "Perform controlled lactose crystallisation in sweetened condensed milk or concentrated whey", Level 3, 8 credits.
  • 9068: "Prepare and process oil and aqueous emulsion", Level 4, 15 credits.
  • 123357: "Conduct a hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) study in a food-handling environment", Level 5, 12 credits.
  • 123295: "Manufacture a beverage by means of lactic acid fermentation of a cooked cereal-based mixture", Level 4, 10 credits.

    The total credits of the qualification should at all times add up to a minimum of 120.

    A learner will be allowed to complete more than one specialisation group, as long as the rules of combination are followed. This will further support the principle of horizontal progression and articulation. 

  • EXIT LEVEL OUTCOMES 
    Qualifying learners can:

    1. Manufacture the relevant dairy product. One of the following dairy products is manufactured:
    > Ripened cheese.
    > Cottage cheese.
    > Processed cheese.
    > Fermented dairy products.
    > Dried dairy products.
    > Liquid long life dairy products.
    > Condensed milk products.
    > Butter and butter-related products.
    > Frozen ice cream and frozen ice cream related dairy products.

    2. Pack the relevant manufactured dairy product.

    3. Perform quality control practices on manufactured dairy products.

    Critical cross-field outcomes:

    Critical cross-field outcomes have been addressed by the exit level outcomes as follows:

    While performing laboratory functions, qualifying learners can:

    1. Identify and solve problems in which response displays that responsible decisions, using critical and creative thinking, have been made by:
    > Problem solving during manufacturing, packaging and quality assurance:
    > Evident in exit level outcomes: 1, 2 and 3.

    2. Work effectively with others as a member of a team, group, organisation or community by:
    > Applying teamwork during manufacturing, packaging and laboratory analysis:
    > Evident in exit level outcomes: 1, 2 and 3.
    > Co-ordinating one's work with that of others in the direct surrounding area:
    > Evident in exit level outcomes: 1, 2 and 3.

    3. Organise and manage oneself and one's activities responsibly and effectively by:
    > Planning one's activities:
    > Evident in exit level outcomes: 1, 2 and 3.

    4. Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information by:
    > Keeping records of manufacturing, packaging and quality assurance:
    > Evident in exit level outcomes: 1, 2 and 3.
    > Analysing samples and evaluating the results:
    > Evident in exit level outcome: 3.

    5. Communicate effectively by using mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written presentations by:
    > Keeping records and noting results:
    > Evident in exit level outcomes: 1, 2 and 3.

    6. Use science and technology effectively and critically, showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others by:
    > Working according to health and safety regulations:
    > Evident in exit level outcomes: 1, 2 and 3.

    7. Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem solving contexts do not exist in isolation by:
    > Problem solving during manufacturing, packaging and quality assurance:
    > Evident in exit level outcomes: 1, 2 and 3.

    8. Contribute to the full personal development of each learner and the social and economic development of the society at large by:
    > Manufacturing of a dairy product:
    > Evident in exit level outcome: 1.
    > Packaging of a dairy product:
    > Evident in exit level outcome: 2.
    > Performing quality assurance procedures:
    > Evident in exit level outcome: 3. 

    ASSOCIATED ASSESSMENT CRITERIA 
    1:
  • Knowledge of the relevant manufacturing technology is demonstrated according to standard dairy principles.
  • Preparation for the manufacturing of the relevant dairy product is done according to standard operating procedures.
  • The relevant dairy product is manufactured according to standard operating procedures.
  • End of process duties are performed according to standard operating procedures.

    2:
  • Knowledge of the relevant packaging process is demonstrated according to standard dairy principles.
  • Preparation for the packaging of the relevant dairy product is done according to standard operating procedures.
  • The relevant dairy product is packed according to standard operating procedures.
  • End of packaging duties are performed according to standard operating procedures.

    3:
  • Knowledge and comprehension of microbiological principles and its application in a dairy manufacturing environment is demonstrated using standard diary practices as examples.
  • Quality control practices are performed during dairy product analysis according to standard operating procedures.
  • Quality assurance procedures are monitored and controlled according to standard operating procedures.
  • The sensory and compositional analysis of the relevant dairy product is performed according to standard dairy principles.

    Integrated assessment:

    The applied competence (practical, foundational and reflexive competencies) of this qualification will be achieved if a learner is able to manufacture and pack a dairy product and perform the relevant quality control procedures.

    The identifying and solving of problems, team work, organising one-self, the using of applied science, the implication of actions and reactions in the world as a set of related systems must be assessed during any combination of practical, foundational and reflexive competencies demonstrated. Assessment methods and tools must be designed to determine the whole person development and integration of applied knowledge and skills.

    Applicable assessment tool(s) must be used to establish the foundational, reflexive and embedded knowledge applied to solve problems.

    A detailed portfolio of evidence is required to prove the practical, applied and foundational competencies of the learner.

    Assessors should develop and conduct their own integrated assessment by making use of a range of formative and summative assessment methods and should assess combinations of practical, applied, foundational and reflexive competencies. Assessors should assess and give credit for the evidence of learning that has already been acquired through formal, informal and non-formal learning and work experience.

    Unit standards in the qualification must be used to assess specific and critical cross-field outcomes. 

  • INTERNATIONAL COMPARABILITY 
    Benchmarking was done against the NZQA from New Zealand, NVQ from England, Wales and Northern Ireland, AQF from Australia and the SVQ from Scotland.

    On the NZQA from New Zealand, three qualifications exist at Level 4 for Dairy Manufacturing, namely:
  • National Certificate in Dairy Manufacturing (Process Skills) with optional strands in Product Safety and People Skills.
  • National Certificate in Dairy Manufacturing with optional strands in Product Safety, People Skills and Computing Skills.
  • National Certificate in Dairy Manufacturing (Laboratory Technology).

    The first of the above-mentioned qualifications was modelled against this qualification. The Level 4 National Certificate in Dairy Manufacturing (Process Skills) from the NZQA contains a minimum of 50 credits and can be extended with optional strands in product safety and people skills to 74 credits. It is aimed at experienced employees working with limited supervision and recognises the ability to apply and monitor a range of on-the-job skills. The qualification is structured with a compulsory generic section and an elective section that provides options covering general and specialist competencies required for unique products and technologies.

    Compulsory generic standards cover the following competencies:
  • Implementation of quality systems.
  • People skills.
  • Dairy processing.
  • Dairy product safety and risk management.
  • Dairy workplace health and safety.

    Elective standards cover the following competencies:
  • Elective A:
    > Facilitation skills.
    > Personal management.
    > Statistics.
    > Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP).
    > Problem solving on faulty equipment.
  • Elective B:
    > Training and development.
    > Workplace assessment.
    > Working with temperature controlled stock.
    > Implementation of environmental programmes.
    > People management.

    Thus, the New Zealand qualification compares well with the South African qualification, although product specialisation in the former is not defined in such detail as in the South African qualification. The New Zealand qualification also has a strong focus on people skills and management, which is not the case in the South African qualification. These skills are addressed in the Level 5 South African qualification in First Line Manufacturing Management.

    On the NVQ from England, Wales and Northern Ireland, Dairy Manufacturing Technology forms part of the City & Guilds National Vocational Qualification in Food and Drink Manufacturing Operations at Levels 1, 2 and 3. Level 1 is suitable for entry-level staff, whereas Level 3 is aimed at supervisors, team leaders or those with a high level of technical skills. A Level 2 involves approximately six months of study and practice, whereas a Level 3 would take between one to two years to complete.

    Units in the qualification are either optional or mandatory. Mandatory units focus on areas such as health and safety and teamwork, which are common to any job role within the food and drink manufacturing industry. Optional units include areas such as maintaining the quality of products, cleaning in place, hygiene and control units that focus on different processes within food and drink manufacturing. At Level 2, units cover similar areas to those at Level 1, with a few additions, in particular diagnosing and rectifying operating problems. The units in Level 3 differ from those at Levels 1 and 2 by having a more supervisory focus, reflecting the job roles of those who will take them.

    The major difference between the UK qualification (Level 3) and this South African qualification (Level 4) is in the Level, i.e. supervisory and entry-level management competencies are addressed at Level 3 in the UK qualification, but in the South African qualification it is addressed at Level 4. However, the latter is in line with the SAQA level descriptors and provides a clear learning pathway in the Dairy Industry.

    The AQF from Australia contains a qualification (Certificate IV) in Food Processing, which consist of specialist, core, imported, multi-sector specialist and sector specialist units. For the dairy sector, specialist units include the following competencies, but only on Level 2:
  • Butter churning.
  • Continuous freezing.
  • Butter oil processing.
  • Curd production and cutting.
  • Cooling and hardening.
  • Cheese pressing and moulding.
  • Fermentation processes.
  • Holding and storage processes.
  • Membrane processes.

    In the South African qualification, most of the above processes are addresses on Level 4, while the Australian Certificate IV qualification focuses more on the following skills:
  • Assessment of food safety programmes.
  • Conducting food safety audits.
  • Control of food safety hazards.
  • Establishment of process capability.
  • Management.
  • Optimising processes.
  • Planning and designing for quality management.
  • Statistics.
  • Application of engineering principles.
  • Implementing and maintaining quality management systems.

    Most of these skills are addressed in the Level 5 South African qualification in First Line Manufacturing Management.

    The SVQ from Scotland contains a qualification in Food and Drink Manufacturing Operations at Level 4. It consists of mandatory and optional units outlined below:
    Mandatory units:
  • Managing food and drink manufacturing projects.
  • Contributing to improvements in food and drink manufacturing operations.
  • Auditing against standards.
  • Development of resources.
  • Maintaining health, safety and hygiene.

    Optional units:
  • Managing the commissioning and handover of a food and drink manufacturing plant.
  • Product development.
  • Developing a food and drink manufacturing process.
  • Development of people.
  • Managing the use of physical resources.
  • Managing the use of financial resources.
  • Implementing a quality assurance system.

    Very little product manufacturing (technical and operational) skills are found in the Level 4 Scottish qualification, as is the case in the South African qualification. The strong management focus in the Scottish qualification is reflected in the Level 5 South African qualification in First Line Manufacturing Management.

    In conclusion, it can be stated that in terms of the qualifications analysed in this study, this qualification is justified as it contains similar essential core competencies to those offered internationally in dairy manufacturing. 

  • ARTICULATION OPTIONS 
    This qualification articulates horizontally within its different specialization groups, namely:
  • Ripened cheese manufacturing.
  • Cottage cheese manufacturing.
  • Processed cheese manufacturing.
  • Fermented dairy products manufacturing.
  • Dried dairy products manufacturing.
  • Liquid long life dairy products manufacturing.
  • Sweetened condensed milk manufacturing.
  • Butter and butter related spreads manufacturing.
  • Frozen ice cream and frozen ice cream related products manufacturing.

    As well as with the following qualifications:
  • 20206 - Further Education and Training Certificate: Food and Beverage Manufacturing Technology: Spray Dried Food Product Technologist - NQF Level 4
  • 48915 - Further Education and Training Certificate: Manufacturing and Assembly Operations Supervision - NQF Level 4.

    Vertical articulation exists with the following qualification:
  • 49743 - National Certificate: First Line Manufacturing Management - NQF Level 5. 

  • MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against this qualification must be registered as an assessor and moderator respectively with the relevant ETQA, or with another ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable the achievement of this qualification must be accredited as a provider with the relevant ETQA, or with another ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Assessment and moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant ETQA, or by another ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA, according to the ETQA's policies and guidelines for assessment and moderation.
  • Moderation must include both internal and external moderation of assessments at exit points of the qualification, unless ETQA policies specify otherwise. Moderation should also encompass achievement of the competence described both in individual unit standards, exit level outcomes and the integrated competence described in the qualification.
  • Anyone wishing to be assessed against this qualification may apply to be assessed by any assessment agency, assessor or provider institution that is accredited by the relevant ETQA. 

  • CRITERIA FOR THE REGISTRATION OF ASSESSORS 
    For an applicant to register as an assessor, the following are essential:
  • Anyone assessing a learner against this qualification must be registered as an assessor with the relevant ETQA, or with another ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • The applicant needs well-developed interpersonal skills, as well as subject matter and assessment experience.
  • The applicant should have a similar qualification than this one at NQF Level 5 or higher, with a minimum of 12 months field experience after he/she has completed the qualification. 

  • NOTES 
    As per the SAQA decision, after consultation with the Quality Councils, to re-register all qualifications and part qualifications on the National Qualifications Framework that meet the criteria for re-registration, this qualification has been re-registered from 1 July 2012.
    This qualification replaces 11 similar qualifications. Please refer to the Rationale of the qualification for these qualification IDs and titles. 

    UNIT STANDARDS: 
      ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
    Core  119796  Monitor and control quality assurance procedures in a food or sensitive consumer product environment  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Core  119801  Demonstrate an understanding of microbiological principles and its application in a food handling environment.  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  12 
    Core  123348  Demonstrate an understanding of the functional components of milk  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
    Fundamental  119472  Accommodate audience and context needs in oral/signed communication  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Fundamental  119457  Interpret and use information from texts  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Fundamental  119467  Use language and communication in occupational learning programmes  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Fundamental  119465  Write/present/sign texts for a range of communicative contexts  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Fundamental  9015  Apply knowledge of statistics and probability to critically interrogate and effectively communicate findings on life related problems  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Fundamental  119462  Engage in sustained oral/signed communication and evaluate spoken/signed texts  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Fundamental  119469  Read/view, analyse and respond to a variety of texts  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Fundamental  9016  Represent analyse and calculate shape and motion in 2-and 3-dimensional space in different contexts  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Fundamental  119471  Use language and communication in occupational learning programmes  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Fundamental  7468  Use mathematics to investigate and monitor the financial aspects of personal, business, national and international issues  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Fundamental  119459  Write/present/sign for a wide range of contexts  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  8875  Enrobe confectionery products  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Elective  120236  Evaluate the efficiency of homogenisation of a liquid dairy product  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Elective  123276  Evaluate the fat-, salt-, moisture- and solids-non-fat-content of butter as indicated by the Kohman test  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Elective  123292  Evaluate the quality of a dairy powder in terms of its bulk density  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Elective  123275  Evaluate the quality of a dairy powder in terms of its moisture content, as indicated by the Toluene distillation method  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Elective  120241  Evaluate the quality of a dairy product in terms of its fat content, as determined by the Gerber or Babcock fat determination method  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Elective  123294  Evaluate the quality of a food product in terms of its Brix-value  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Elective  123284  Evaluate the quality of a food product in terms of its fat content as determined by an ether extraction method  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Elective  120411  Evaluate the quality of a food product in terms of its pH  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Elective  123277  Evaluate the quality of a food product in terms of its total solids content using an oven drying method  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Elective  123280  Evaluate the quality of a food product in terms of its viscosity  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Elective  123282  Evaluate the quality of cheese in terms of its salt content  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Elective  123291  Evaluate the quality of instant milk powder in terms of its dispersibility  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Elective  120408  Evaluate the quality of milk in terms of its freezing point  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Elective  120400  Evaluate the quality of milk in terms of its solids-non-fat content  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Elective  120240  Evaluate the sensory quality of pasteurised milk, cream or fruit milk mixtures  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Elective  123304  Mould a frozen dairy ice cream or ice cream related product  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Elective  123306  Operate and control the aseptic forming, filling and sealing of containers for food products  Level 3  NQF Level 03  18 
    Elective  120233  Operate and control the filling and closing of glass or rigid plastic containers for food products  Level 3  NQF Level 03  10 
    Elective  123312  Operate and control the filling and sealing of cans for food products  Level 3  NQF Level 03  12 
    Elective  123347  Operate and control the forming and wrapping of a brick or cube shaped food product  Level 3  NQF Level 03  10 
    Elective  120258  Operate and control the forming, filling and hermetic sealing of gable top or brick type cartons for food products  Level 3  NQF Level 03  12 
    Elective  120256  Operate and control the forming, filling and hermetic sealing of plastic sachets or bags for food products  Level 3  NQF Level 03  10 
    Elective  123301  Operate and control the individual wrapping of process cheese portions  Level 3  NQF Level 03  12 
    Elective  123298  Operate and control the wrapping and sealing of individual food product units  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Elective  123308  Perform controlled lactose crystallisation in sweetened condensed milk or concentrated whey  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Elective  123307  Coagulate milk or a dairy mixture for the manufacturing of a fermented product  Level 4  NQF Level 04  20 
    Elective  123303  Demonstrate an understanding of the connection between milk constituents, syneresis and moisture control in cheese curd  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  123285  Evaluate the extent of saturation of butterfat (in cream or butter), as indicated by its iodine value  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  123283  Evaluate the sensory quality of butter  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  123287  Evaluate the sensory quality of cheese  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  123296  Evaluate the sensory quality of condensed milk products  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  123286  Evaluate the sensory quality of cottage cheese  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  123288  Evaluate the sensory quality of dried dairy products  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  123305  Evaluate the sensory quality of fermented dairy products  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  123290  Evaluate the sensory quality of frozen dairy ice cream or ice cream related products  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  123302  Evaluate the sensory quality of lactic acid fermented cereal-based beverages  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  123289  Evaluate the sensory quality of liquid long life dairy products  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  123300  Evaluate the sensory quality of processed cheese  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  123349  Evaporate a liquid food product using a falling or rising film evaporator  Level 4  NQF Level 04  20 
    Elective  123295  Manufacture a beverage by means of lactic acid fermentation of a cooked cereal-based mixture  Level 4  NQF Level 04  10 
    Elective  123354  Manufacture a Cheddar type cheese from coagulated milk  Level 4  NQF Level 04  30 
    Elective  123355  Manufacture a dry food product by means of a roller dryer  Level 4  NQF Level 04  30 
    Elective  123297  Manufacture a frozen dairy ice cream or ice cream related product  Level 4  NQF Level 04  15 
    Elective  123311  Manufacture a Gouda or Grana type cheese from coagulated milk  Level 4  NQF Level 04  30 
    Elective  123358  Manufacture a Mozzarella type cheese from coagulated milk  Level 4  NQF Level 04  30 
    Elective  123356  Manufacture a spray dried food powder from an evaporated mixture  Level 4  NQF Level 04  30 
    Elective  123309  Manufacture a sterilised food product by means of a retort  Level 4  NQF Level 04  20 
    Elective  123350  Manufacture a sterilised food product by means of a steri-tower  Level 4  NQF Level 04  20 
    Elective  123310  Manufacture a UHT food product  Level 4  NQF Level 04  20 
    Elective  123293  Manufacture butter by means of a batch churn  Level 4  NQF Level 04  25 
    Elective  123346  Manufacture butter with a continuous butter making machine  Level 4  NQF Level 04  25 
    Elective  123351  Manufacture processed cheese  Level 4  NQF Level 04  20 
    Elective  123313  Manufacture smooth or chunky cottage cheese from coagulated milk  Level 4  NQF Level 04  25 
    Elective  8880  Manufacture wafer products  Level 4  NQF Level 04  20 
    Elective  123353  Prepare a bulk starter culture for the manufacturing of fermented dairy products or cheese  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  9068  Prepare and process an aqueous and oil emulsion  Level 4  NQF Level 04  15 
    Elective  123357  Conduct a hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) study in a food handling environment  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  12 


    LEARNING PROGRAMMES RECORDED AGAINST THIS QUALIFICATION: 
    When qualifications are replaced, some (but not all) of their learning programmes are moved to the replacement qualifications. If a learning programme appears to be missing from here, please check the replaced qualification.
     
    NONE 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS QUALIFICATION: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Quality Assuring Bodies have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Quality Assuring Body should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    NONE 



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