SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED QUALIFICATION THAT HAS PASSED THE END DATE: 

Further Education and Training Certificate: Gender Practice 
SAQA QUAL ID QUALIFICATION TITLE
49836  Further Education and Training Certificate: Gender Practice 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Gender Equality and Women`s Empowerment 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY NQF SUB-FRAMEWORK
HW SETA - Health and Welfare Sector Education and Training Authority  OQSF - Occupational Qualifications Sub-framework 
QUALIFICATION TYPE FIELD SUBFIELD
Further Ed and Training Cert  Field 07 - Human and Social Studies  People/Human-Centred Development 
ABET BAND MINIMUM CREDITS PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL QUAL CLASS
Undefined  152  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Regular-Unit Stds Based 
REGISTRATION STATUS SAQA DECISION NUMBER REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE
Passed the End Date -
Status was "Reregistered" 
EXCO 07158/17  2015-07-01  2016-12-31 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2017-12-31   2019-12-31  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This qualification does not replace any other qualification and is not replaced by any other qualification. 

PURPOSE AND RATIONALE OF THE QUALIFICATION 
Purpose:

This Qualification will contribute to empowering learners and increasing awareness within the framework of gender equality and women's empowerment within various contexts. The Qualification also provides learners with a formal qualification that allows for recognition, further education and training opportunities at various levels as well as continued professional and personal development.

Gender training and empowerment is a key element in raising awareness of the negative impact of unequal gender relations on education, health, economic and political participation. The focus of training is also on teaching women about their rights and developing strategies in order to promote and protect these rights; as well as understand the different ways in which men, women, boys and girls experience armed conflict and the benefits of women's involvement in conflict transformation and peace-building processes. Gender-transformative education can also contribute to reducing gender-based violence, respecting women's rights, changing the images, attitudes, and stereotypes conveyed by media, as well as to analyse events, facts, issues and data from a gender perspective.

A person acquiring this Qualification will be able to:
  • Communicate effectively using a range of strategies to identify and deal with gender inequalities and women's empowerment issues.
  • Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the principles, concepts and theories of gender equality and women's empowerment.
  • Identify and select appropriate gender practices and processes for transformation of gender relations in organisations, programmes and projects.
  • Promote and support gender equality and women's empowerment through education, training and development.
  • Apply principles of social justice to promote gender equality and women's empowerment.

    The Qualification also aims at developing a competent and professional sector encompassing ethics and good governance for the effective delivery of services. The applied competencies demonstrated within this Qualification are essential for enabling a positive impact on gender equality and women's empowerment within South African society.

    Rationale:

    This Qualification is aimed at raising awareness and empowering learners with the competencies to deal with gender inequalities in various contexts. It also fulfils a Constitutional mandate to ensure a non-sexist society by promoting gender equality, equity and women empowerment across different spheres and sectors. It is intended to address issues relating to historical gender inequalities in a range of contexts. This Qualification will also contribute to raising awareness and dealing with changing attitudes and perceptions of gender stereotypes and prejudice.

    The qualification will contribute to socio-economic empowerment and development as well as improve access to employment opportunities through job creation projects that require gender specific competencies. It will also ensure that women and men develop competencies to deal with improving gender relations at individual, family, work, community and government levels. The Qualification also provides the learner with the essential skills to facilitate a pathway for further learning as well as receive recognition for existing skills and knowledge.

    The range of typical learners that will benefit from this qualification include:
  • Government Officials.
  • Community Based Organisations (CBO's).
  • Non-Governmental Organisations (NGO's).
  • Government and non-government programme practitioners in the area of gender equality and women's empowerment.
  • Faith Based Organisations (FBO's) and leaders.
  • Unions.
  • Facilitators.
  • Researchers.
  • People involved in Education/Educators.
  • Activists.
  • People involved in advocacy initiatives.
  • Early Childhood Development (ECD) practitioners.
  • Development practitioners.
  • Adult Basic Education and Training (ABET) practitioners.
  • Human Resource managers.
  • Women in leadership.
  • Police Officers.
  • Health Care Workers.

    Vulnerable groups in this context could also include farm workers, domestic workers, people with disabilities and mine workers.

    The Qualification affirms the experiences of women and men through the recognition and credit accumulation of competencies; allowing for gender mainstreaming. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
  • Communication at NQF Level 3 or equivalent.
  • Mathematical Literacy at NQF Level 3 or equivalent.

    Recognition of prior learning:

    The structure of this Unit Standards-based Qualification makes the Recognition of prior learning possible. If the learner is able to demonstrate competence in the knowledge, skills, values and attitudes implicit in this qualification the appropriate credits should be assigned to the learner. Recognition of prior learning will be done by means of Integrated Assessment as mentioned above.

    This recognition of prior learning may allow:
  • Accelerated access to further learning at this level or higher levels on the NQF.
  • Gaining of credits towards a unit standard.
  • Obtaining of this Qualification in part.

    Access to the qualification:

    There is open access to this Qualification bearing in mind the Learning assumed to be in place. 

  • RECOGNISE PREVIOUS LEARNING? 

    QUALIFICATION RULES 
    The Qualification consists of a Fundamental, a Core and an Elective Component.

    To be awarded the Qualification, learners are required to obtain a minimum of 152 credits as detailed below.

    Fundamental Component

    The Fundamental Component consists of Unit Standards in:
  • Mathematical Literacy at NQF Level 4 to the value of 16 credits.
  • Communication at NQF Level 4 in a First South African Language to the value of 20 credits.
  • Communication in a Second South African Language at NQF Level 3 to the value of 20 credits.

    It is compulsory therefore for learners to do Communication in two different South African languages, one at NQF Level 4 and the other at NQF Level 3.

    All Unit Standards in the Fundamental Component are compulsory.

    Core Component

    The Core Component consists of Unit Standards to the value of 80 credits all of which are compulsory.

    Elective Component

    The Elective Component consists of Unit Standards to the value of 113 credits. Learners are to choose Unit Standards to the minimum of 16 credits. 

  • EXIT LEVEL OUTCOMES 
    1. Communicate effectively using a range of strategies to identify and deal with gender inequalities and women's empowerment issues.

    2. Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the principles, concepts and theories of gender equality and women's empowerment.

    3. Identify and select strategies that promote gender equality in a variety of contexts.

    4. Identify and apply appropriate resources and training interventions to promote and support gender equality and women's empowerment.

    5. Apply principles of social justice to promote gender equality and women's empowerment. 

    ASSOCIATED ASSESSMENT CRITERIA 
    1:
  • Verbal and non-verbal communication skills are used effectively in a range of gender and development contexts.
  • Appropriate Communication strategies are identified and selected to promote gender equality and women's empowerment.
  • Strategies are implemented to deal with relevant gender issues.
  • The communication strategy is analysed to inform future practice.

    2:
  • Key gender principles, concepts and theories are explained with examples.
  • The roles of institutions are analysed in terms of their impact and effect on shaping values and attitudes of girls, boys, women and men.
  • The concept and practice of power relations are discussed and analysed in terms of their impact on organisational processes, structures and gender inequality.
  • The roles of women's organisations in South Africa are discussed in terms of their contribution and effect in shaping the new democracy.

    3:
  • Strategies are identified and selected motivating reasons for the choice.
  • Strategies are applied to deal with gender stereotypes and perceptions to promote gender equality.
  • The strategy is assessed in terms of strengths and weaknesses.
  • Recommendations are made for future practice.

    4:
  • Gender sensitive indicators are identified, selected and developed to enhance training interventions.
  • Gender sensitive styles and methodologies are identified, developed/used when advising, coaching, mentoring, managing, facilitating and guiding learners on issues that will promote gender equality and women's empowerment.
  • Gender equality and women's empowerment knowledge, skills and attributes are discussed and applied in a range of situations in the workplace.
  • Training interventions are evaluated in terms of their impact, strengths and weaknesses and promotion of gender equality.

    5:
  • The concept of social justice is analysed and discussed in terms of its contribution to Gender Equality and Women's Empowerment.
  • Key resources and opportunities are identified and discussed in terms of promoting gender equality.
  • Violence against women is discussed in terms of its impact on women's disempowerment.
    > Range: Violence includes physical and emotional.
  • Mechanisms for the evaluation and monitoring of gender audit processes are identified and applied to ensure improved auditing practice and achievement of the audit objectives.

    Integrated assessment:
  • Assessment practices must be open, transparent, fair, valid, and reliable and ensure that no learner is disadvantaged in any way whatsoever, so that an integrated approach to assessment is incorporated into the qualification.
  • Learning, teaching and assessment are inextricably interwoven. Whenever possible, the assessment of knowledge, skills, attitudes and values shown in the unit standards should be integrated.
  • Assessment of communication and mathematical literacy should be integrated as far as possible with other aspects and should use practical administration contexts wherever possible. A variety of methods must be used in assessment and tools and activities must be appropriate to the context in which the learner is working or will work. Where it is not possible to assess the learner in the workplace or on-the-job, simulations, case studies, role-plays and other similar techniques should be used to provide a context appropriate to the assessment.
  • The term 'Integrated assessment' implies that theoretical and practical components should be assessed together. During integrated assessments, the assessor should make use of a range of formative and summative assessment tools methods and assess combinations of practical, applied, foundational and reflective competencies.
  • Assessors must assess and give credit for the evidence of learning that has already been acquired through formal, informal and non-formal learning and work experience.
  • Assessment should ensure that all specific outcomes, embedded knowledge and critical cross-field outcomes are evaluated in an integrated manner. 

  • INTERNATIONAL COMPARABILITY 
    The FETC: Gender Practice Qualification and related Unit Standards at NQF Level 4 have been compared with qualifications from various countries to assess global contrasts and/or similarities, regional considerations and standards.

    The research conducted on international comparability with regard to gender and women's studies, women's empowerment and gender equality focused on both education and training programmes offered by a range of institutions and organisations, in both developing and developed nations, as well as on a range of sectors e.g. law, education, health, water and sanitation. The institutions and organisations researched included universities, government institutions and non-governmental service providers; many of which are located in sub-Saharan Africa. The information collected was limited to that which was currently available through internet searches, through personal contacts through tertiary institutions, and organisations that work in the area of gender and women's empowerment.

    Elements of the unit standards developed at Level 4 compare favourably with standards identified in the women's studies courses of New Zealand and Scotland country recognised as leaders in the generation of unit standards and qualifications; these include the following:
  • New Zealand:

    > Self and Text - Level 3
    > Gender and the media - Level 3
    > Gender, Work and Consumer Culture - Level 3
    > Masculinities - Level 3
    > Governing Bodies - Level 3
    > Sexuality and Colonisation - Level 3
    > Develop own plans as a women - Level 3
    > Communicate in a way that validates and includes women - Level 4
    > Increase self-esteem for women - Level 4
  • Scotland:

    > Gendering violence.
    > Gender, sex and death in world politics.
    > The social construction of gender.
    > Introduction to Gender Studies: Men and Masculinity.
    > The female icon.
    > The second sex? Women in culture and society C2000 - C1000 AD
    > Family and society
    > Gender and communication

    These qualifications compare favourably with the skills development achieved through the FETC: Gender Practice qualification because the outcomes and assessment criteria include much of the above terminology and broad perspectives. It is worth noting that the Level 4 qualification promotes the equality model in terms of recognising past inequalities and supports redress, empowerment and equity processes.

    The information was sourced from a range of universities in Canada, Germany, Ireland, Sri Lanka, the Netherlands, USA, UK and India; as well as sub-Saharan African universities such as Cameroon, Kenya, Ghana, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Namibia and Zimbabwe which reflect a large number of women's and gender study programmes that lead to Certificate, Degree, Masters and Doctorate level qualifications. The short courses provided by universities award an internal certificate by the institution or organisation that has offered the study programme.

    Similarly where study programmes and short courses have been offered by non-governmental organisations, other than a certificate of attendance, no accredited qualification is provided.

    Gender inequalities are one of the primary obstacles to the universal realisation of human rights, citizenship, development and health. Unfortunately, gender continues to be omitted from the majority of programs and projects designed to address sustainable development and poverty eradication, which makes capacity building resources and standards on gender more important than ever. It is apparent that some NGO's are running gender awareness workshops within Africa and other developing countries funded by organisations such as the UN. Details on the content of programs offered in such African countries were limited, and the table below reflects the information that was available. No qualifications seem to be run at the lower levels and the focus is largely on "awareness" workshops.
  • Botswana:
  • NGO: Emang Basadi
  • Study Programme: Short courses for Parliamentarians. Some of the workshops and PowerPoint presentations available:
    > Understanding UN Security Council Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security.
    > Moving UNSC 1325 Forward: Some Advocacy Ideas.
    > Head of Household, Survivor of Rape, Market Woman: Engendering Conflict Prevention Through a Holistic Framework for Action.
  • Ghana:
  • NGO: Abantu for Development
  • Study Programme: Short courses for Parliamentarians.
    > Gender and Poverty.
    > Gender and Governance.
    > Gender and Conflict.
    > ABANTU Internship: Nurturing young Leaders.
    > Gender and Information, Communication & Technology (ICT).
  • Kenya
  • NGO: Femnet
  • Study Programme: Short courses for NGOs and individuals.
    > Studies, workshop reports and videos for use in training on gender mainstreaming.
    > ABC of Gender Analysis: a Framework of Analysis.
    > Elusions: Essays on the Social Construction of Gender.
    > Road to Empowerment.
    > Directory of Gender Trainers in the African Region.
    > Gender and Development: a FEMNET Model.
    > Gennews, a newsletter for trainers in gender mainstreaming.
  • Namibia:
  • NGO: Sister Namibia
  • Study Programme: Short courses for Parliamentarians and NGOs.
    > The organization coordinates a centre that collects materials on gender issues, conducts research and provides training for women on women's leadership, human rights and HIV/AIDS. They also publish a successful bi-monthly magazine called "Sister Namibia." The organization's aim is to increase awareness among women, men and young people of the ways in which political, social, cultural, legal and economic systems of power control girls and women; and to oppose and challenge racism, sexism, homophobia and other discourses and practices that divide and oppress people.
  • Tanzania:
  • NGO: TGNP (Tanzania Gender Network Programme)
  • Study Programme: Short courses for Parliamentarians and NGOs.
    > Understanding gender and class and the nature of the micro & macro economic policy, planning and budgeting processes and management.
    > Gender, policy and HIV issues within the sub region.
    > Articulate with conceptual clarity key gender concepts relating to policy issues around HIV and AIDS interventions.
    > Adopt a conceptual framework for gender analysis on the causality of inequalities in relation to HIV and AIDS in the sub-regions.
    > Plan, formulate and manage progressive and gender sensitive interventions and develop indicators for monitoring gender impact on HIV and AIDS.
    > Develop concrete plans of action for addressing the gender gaps within policies and programmes for more effective and sustainable interventions in the areas of their specific mandates.
  • Zambia:
  • NGO: Sister Sister
  • Study Programme: Short course for Parliamentarians.
  • Zimbabwe:
  • NGO: Zimbabwe Women's Resource Centre.
  • Study Programme: Short courses for Parliamentarians, civil servants and NGOs. Teaching resources and publications:
    > Towards a Human Rights Culture in Africa: A Manual for Teaching Human Rights.
    > Human Rights and Democracy in Southern Africa.
    > Cultivating Co-operation amongst Human Rights Institutions in the UNITWIN Network in Southern Africa.
    > Democratisation of Southern Africa.
    > The Southern African Human Rights Reader: Towards Creating a Sustainable Culture of Human Rights.
    > Introducing Democracy, 80 Questions and Answers.
    > Discourses on Human Rights.
    > Education for Human Rights & Democracy in Southern Africa, A Teacher's Resource Manual.
    > Vienna Plus Five: Towards a Sustainable Culture of Human Rights in Southern Africa.

    From the research conducted within the field of Gender Equality and Women's Empowerment the Qualification compares with components, which are included in a range of Qualifications offered at Universities from Bachelor degree level. It also compares with aspects that are included in many of the women's and gender short courses, which are not linked to accredited national qualifications and Unit Standards. 

  • ARTICULATION OPTIONS 
    This Qualification articulates horizontally with the following registered Qualifications:
  • Further Education and Training Certificate: Development Practice (NQF Level 4).
  • National Certificate: Development Practice (NQF Level 4).
  • Further Education and Training Certificate (FETC): Community Facilitation in Society and Environment Interactions (NQF Level 4).
  • Further Education and Training Certificate: Theology and Ministry (NQF Level 4).
  • Further Education and Training Certificate: Community Health Work (NQF Level 4).
  • National Certificate: Early Childhood Development (NQF Level 4).
  • Further Education and Training Certificate: Child and Youth Care Work (NQF Level 4).
  • National Certificate: Environmental Educators, Training and Development Practice (NQF Level 4).

    The Qualification articulates vertically with the following registered Qualifications:
  • National Certificate: Development Practice (NQF Level 5).
  • National Certificate: Local Development (NQF Level 5).
  • National Certificate: Environmental Educators, Training and Development Practice (NQF Level 5). 

  • MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against this Qualification must be registered as an assessor with an appropriate Education, Training, Quality Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable the achievement of this Qualification must be accredited as a provider with the relevant ETQA, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant ETQA or by an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA, according to the ETQA's policies and guidelines for assessment and moderation.
  • Moderation must include both internal and external moderation of assessments at exit points of the Qualification, unless ETQA policies specify otherwise. Moderation should also encompass achievement of the competence described both in individual Unit Standards as well as in the exit level outcomes described in the Qualification. 

  • CRITERIA FOR THE REGISTRATION OF ASSESSORS 
    Assessors registered with the relevant ETQA must carry out the assessment of candidates for any of the unit standards that make up this qualification. The following criteria are specified for an applicant to register as an assessor for this Qualification, the applicant should:
  • Hold a minimum Level 5 qualification in a relevant field.
  • Be experienced in the fields of gender practice and development.
  • Be registered as an assessor with the relevant ETQA.
  • Have good interpersonal skills and ability to balance the conflicting requirements is recommended. 

  • REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this qualification was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    NOTES 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARDS: 
      ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
    Core  13915  Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of HIV/AIDS in a workplace, and its effects on a business sub-sector, own organisation and a specific workplace  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Core  120036  Analyse the role of institutions in developing and perpetuating gender inequality  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Core  10022  Comply with organisational ethics  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Core  120033  Conduct gender audits to deal with redress, equity and diversity within organisations  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Core  117870  Conduct targeted training and development using given methodologies  Level 4  NQF Level 04  10 
    Core  14646  Demonstrate an understanding of the human rights contained in the bill of rights  Level 4  NQF Level 04  12 
    Core  119662  Describe the relevance of human rights and democratic practices in South African society  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Core  120085  Discuss the benefits and risks of engaging the media in different social contexts  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Core  7791  Display cultural awareness in dealing with customers and colleagues  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Core  120030  Identify and apply principles of social justice to empower women at different levels of society  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Core  120031  Promote and inform women's empowerment and gender practices  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Core  120029  Promote Gender Equality and Women's Empowerment through education, training and development  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Core  120082  Provide interventions in gender violence  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Fundamental  8968  Accommodate audience and context needs in oral communication  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Fundamental  8972  Interpret a variety of literary texts  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Fundamental  8969  Interpret and use information from texts  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Fundamental  8970  Write texts for a range of communicative contexts  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Fundamental  9015  Apply knowledge of statistics and probability to critically interrogate and effectively communicate findings on life related problems  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Fundamental  8974  Engage in sustained oral communication and evaluate spoken texts  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Fundamental  8975  Read analyse and respond to a variety of texts  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Fundamental  9016  Represent analyse and calculate shape and motion in 2-and 3-dimensional space in different contexts  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Fundamental  8979  Use language and communication in occupational learning programmes  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Fundamental  7468  Use mathematics to investigate and monitor the financial aspects of personal, business, national and international issues  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Fundamental  8976  Write for a wide range of contexts  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  117877  Perform one-to-one training on the job  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Elective  119905  Analyse environmental impacts in rural areas  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  115587  Collect and present community needs information  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  116727  Communicate personal faith in a range of contexts  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  110057  Conduct a self-evaluation of own progress and development  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  110056  Conduct advocacy campaigns and workshops in development practice  Level 4  NQF Level 04  12 
    Elective  120076  Demonstrate an understanding of prevention programmes in Victim Empowerment  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  117182  Demonstrate knowledge of programming and activities in child and youth care work  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  117498  Demonstrate knowledge of the provision and implementation of primary health care within the community  Level 4  NQF Level 04  10 
    Elective  115591  Explain and apply environmental legal principles, rights, duties and responsibilities to a specific work context  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  115596  Explain and apply principles and practices of social participation in society and environment interactions  Level 4  NQF Level 04  10 
    Elective  110055  Facilitate learning in development practice  Level 4  NQF Level 04  14 
    Elective  12544  Facilitate the preparation and presentation of evidence for assessment  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  120077  Implement volunteer projects  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  110023  Present information in report format  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  120081  Provide support to child victims of abuse, neglect and exploitation  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  119721  Support marginalised, "at risk" and vulnerable individuals and groups and identify appropriate referral services  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  14609  Participate in management of conflict  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 


    LEARNING PROGRAMMES RECORDED AGAINST THIS QUALIFICATION: 
     
    NONE 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS QUALIFICATION: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. HIV SA 
    2. Numbi Training and Research 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.