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SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED QUALIFICATION: 

Further Education and Training Certificate: High Speed Inter-City Commuter Railway Operations 
SAQA QUAL ID QUALIFICATION TITLE
65589  Further Education and Training Certificate: High Speed Inter-City Commuter Railway Operations 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Transport and Logistics Operations 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY NQF SUB-FRAMEWORK
TETA - Transport Education and Training Authority  OQSF - Occupational Qualifications Sub-framework 
QUALIFICATION TYPE FIELD SUBFIELD
Further Ed and Training Cert  Field 11 - Services  Transport, Operations and Logistics 
ABET BAND MINIMUM CREDITS PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL QUAL CLASS
Undefined  149  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Regular-Unit Stds Based 
REGISTRATION STATUS SAQA DECISION NUMBER REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE
Reregistered  SAQA 10105/14  2015-07-01  2018-06-30 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2019-06-30   2022-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This qualification does not replace any other qualification and is not replaced by any other qualification. 

PURPOSE AND RATIONALE OF THE QUALIFICATION 
Purpose:

The purpose of this qualification is to ensure service excellence with a focus on safe operation of a high speed inter-city railway system.

A learner certified as competent in terms of this qualification will be able to manage a high speed inter-city railway operation, in accordance with the Principles of Safe Movement on Rail (POSMOR) and company-specific policies, procedures and instructions.

This qualification will equip the successful learner with the competence to perform those essential functions related to the running of a high speed inter-city commuter system, namely:

1. Coordinating the commercial activities at a high speed inter-city railway station. This function includes:
  • Managing the equipment of a station (Normal and Degraded mode) using the Station and Tunnel Management System.
  • Providing a ticketing service to passengers.
  • Providing a customer information service.
  • Supervising staff and assisting customers.

    2. Operating an Inter-city commuter train consisting of an Electrical Multiple Unit (EMU) or a number of motor coaches with a signal controlled system in normal and degraded mode. This function includes:
  • Knowing the facilities and ergonomics of an EMU.
  • Applying the signalisation (Wayside and On-board).
  • Driving a train according to rules & procedures.
  • Reporting information to the control Centre.
  • Intervening in case of failure of some the EMU equipment.

    3. Controlling the operations of a high speed inter-city railway system in normal and degraded mode:
  • Managing the Train Traffic (Normal and Degraded mode) using the Centralised Traffic Control (CTC) system.
  • Managing the Traction Power (Normal and Degraded mode) using the Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) system.
  • Managing the time table system (Audio and Visual information).
  • Managing the station equipment (Normal and Degraded mode) using the Station and Tunnel Management System.
  • Managing an emergency situation.
  • Managing exceptional events on the high-speed intercity commuter system.
  • Communicating with staff, emergency services and third parties.

    Rationale:

    The South African government has set as a priority to improve the transport system in South Africa. The following reasons can be noted:
  • Stimulation of economic growth, regional development, tourism and jobs.
  • Promote the image and use of public transport.
  • Relieve road congestion on the major arterials.
  • Provide a safe, secure, comfortable, reliable and predictable service to local and international passengers.
  • Support development and strengthen economic development nodes in the area.
  • Enhance black economic empowerment and creation of SMEs.
  • Encourage private sector participation and investment.
  • Develop the image, standing and performance of South Africa in the world.
  • In addition to stimulating economic development and alleviating severe traffic congestion, Rapid Links will also create distinct environmental and socio- economic benefits for South Africa.

    Persons operating within this industry, as well as other transport services, will benefit from this qualification and its competence standards, which are instrumental to the development and recognition of the foundational, practical and reflexive competence (applied competence) needed to render effective and efficient rail transport services.

    Central to the qualification is the development of a culture of safe working and providing excellent customer service. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    It is assumed that the leaner entering this qualification will be competent in:
  • Mathematical Literacy at NQF Level 3.
  • Communication at NQF Level 3.

    Recognition of Prior Learning:

    This qualification may be achieved in part through the recognition of prior learning, which includes formal, informal and non-formal learning and work experience.

    Access to the Qualification:

    Access to this Qualification is open to all learners taking into consideration learning assumed to be in place. 

  • RECOGNISE PREVIOUS LEARNING? 

    QUALIFICATION RULES 
    The Qualification consists of a Fundamental, a Core and an Elective Component.

    To be awarded the Qualification learners are required to obtain a minimum of 149 credits as detailed below.

    Fundamental component:

    The Fundamental Component consists of Unit Standards in:
  • Mathematical Literacy at NQF Level 4 to the value of 16 credits.
  • Communication at NQF Level 4 in a First South African Language to the value of 20 credits.
  • Communication in a Second South African Language at NQF Level 3 to the value of 20 credits.

    It is compulsory therefore for learners to do Communication in two different South African languages, one at NQF Level 4 and the other at NQF Level 3.

    All Unit Standards in the Fundamental Component are compulsory.

    Core component:

    The Core Component consists of Unit Standards to the value of 71 credits all of which are compulsory.

    Elective component:

    The Elective Component consists of individual unit standards from which the learner must choose unit standards totalling a minimum of 22 credits. 

  • EXIT LEVEL OUTCOMES 
    1. Coordinate the commercial activities at high speed inter-city railway station.

    2. Operate an Electrical Multiple Unit (EMU)/Motor coaches with a signal controlled system in normal and degraded mode.

    3. Control the operations of a high speed inter-city railway system in normal and degraded mode.

    Critical Cross-field Outcomes:

    This qualification addresses the following critical cross-field outcomes, as detailed in the associated unit standards:
  • Communicating effectively using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral/written persuasion.
  • Identifying and solving problems in which responses indicate that responsible decisions using critical and creative thinking have been made.
  • Collecting, analysing, organising and critically evaluating information.
  • Demonstrating and understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation.
  • Organising and managing oneself and one's activities responsibly and effectively.
  • Working effectively with others as a member of a team, group, organisation or community.
  • Using science and technology effectively and critically, showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others. 

  • ASSOCIATED ASSESSMENT CRITERIA 
    Associated Assessment Criteria for Exit Level Outcome 1:

    1.1 A station is managed in normal and degraded mode using the Station and Tunnel Management System.
  • Range: Station includes but it is not limited to the lifts, escalators, parkade, tunnel, fare gates.
    1.2 Tickets sales are managed according to passenger requirement.
    1.3 Customers are informed of high speed inter-city railway services.
  • Range: Customers include but it is not limited to bus and train passengers, staff, parkade users, bus operator's personnel.
  • Range: Services include but it is not limited to fare, timetable, delay, cancellation, places of interest in proximity information, events.

    Associated Assessment Criteria for Exit Level Outcome 2:

    2.1 The components of an EMU are described in terms of their application and purpose.
    2.2 The ATP information system (Wayside and On-board) is interpreted in terms of the required response.
    2.3 A high speed train is operated according to rules and procedures.
    2.4 Information is reported to the Operation Control Centre in accordance with organizational policies and instructions.
  • Range: Information includes but it is not limited to failure, obstructions, passenger incident, wash-aways.
    2.5 Component failures on an EMU is corrected in accordance with organizational policies and instructions.

    Associated Assessment Criteria for Exit Level Outcome 3:

    3.1 The Train Traffic system is managed in normal and degraded mode using the Centralized Traffic Control (CTC) system.
    3.2 The Traction Power system is managed in normal and degraded mode using the Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) system.
    3.3 Communication with staff, emergency services, and third parties are conducted in terms of company policies and procedures.
  • Range: Third parties include but are not limited to Airports Company South Africa (ACSA), South African Rail Commuter Corporation (SARCC) ESKOM, TELKOM, South African Police Service (SAPS).

    Integrated Assessment:

    Assessment should take place within the context of:
  • Given Quality Assurance policies, procedures and processes.
  • A guided and supported learning environment.

    Assessment will take place according to the detailed specifications indicated in the unit standards above.

    Over and above the achievement of the specified unit standards, evidence of integration will be required as per the following broad criteria, all within the context of an active learning environment.

    Assessors should note that the evidence of integration (as above) could well be presented by candidates when being assessed against the unit standards - thus there should not necessarily be separate assessments for each unit standard and then further assessment for integration. Well designed assessments should make it possible to gain evidence against each unit standard while at the same time gain evidence of integration. 

  • INTERNATIONAL COMPARABILITY 
    Similar Rail Systems:

    The following countries that run systems similar to the high speed inter-city operation in South Africa were sourced for a comparison:
  • France.
  • Algeria.
  • Philippines.
  • South Korea.
  • Greece.
  • Arab Emirates.

    The countries were selected as they are rail service providers who operate with the ATP system and are most relevant to the South African context in terms of infrastructure, equipment, rolling stock, and skills requirements and development. In addition, these examples are recognized internationally as quality providers of rail services.

    Paris (France):

    RATP (Régie Autonome des Transports Parisiens) has been in the transport industry since 1900 and is the operator of the Paris Metropolitan as well as suburban trains in the Paris Region. It represents 14 metro lines and 2 sub-urban lines.

    RATP has developed, updated and improved over the years a complete set of training materials to train their operating staff. There is no qualification body in France that specifically certifies training materials, but they are part of the safety cases of our transport systems and have therefore been approved by the French Transport Department.

    Algeria (North Africa): Algiers Metro Line 1:

    In Algeria there is no qualification authority for the training as in South Africa (SA), but the City of Algiers chose the RATP training process for their hundred years old expertise to elaborate the training plan and the training material.

    The Line 1 is a railway system similar to the High-Speed Intercity operation which will initially be operated in Gauteng, it will commence operations in 2009 and includes the following aspects:
  • ATP control.
  • Operation Control System.
  • SCADA.
  • Station management System.
  • 9 underground stations and 1 at-grade station

    Different profiles exist:
  • Passenger train driver.
  • Control centre supervisor.
  • Versatile managers - to be compared with Route Supervisor and Customer Service Officer in SA.
  • Station manager - to be compared with Customer Service Assistant in SA.

    The RATP trainers are training the future managers who will then train the new employees themselves.

    The training process includes:
  • Classroom training.
  • Company procedures.
  • Emergency procedures.
  • Safe working practices.
  • Practice on equipments.

    Manila (Philippines): MRT 3:

    The Department of Transport and Communication (DOTC) in the Philippines is the operator of the second line in Manila opened in December 1999. This system is also similar to the High-speed Intercity operation that is being implemented in South Africa.

    No unit standards are in use in Philippines for the content of training programs as well as the certification process.

    Currently the training starts with the training of managers and then cascades down to all staff (Train Drivers, Signalling Operators, and Station Supervisors).

    Formal certification is delivered by the DOTC for the completion of the training process.

    Seoul (South Korea): Incheon International Airport Link (Airport Railroad Co - AREX).

    This railroad operator was chosen for their similarity to the high speed inter-city operation in South Africa.

    AREX and other Korean railroad companies do not have unit standard based qualifications for comparison purposes. The learning programmes, though, correlate with the contents of learning programmes and syllabus in the South African context.

    Different profiles exist in this company, for example:
  • Passenger Train Driver versus Train Driver in the Republic of South Africa (RSA).
  • Control Centre Officer versus Train Control Officer in RSA.
  • There is no Conductor (Train Assistant) in these trains.
  • Station staff versus Customer Service Staff.

    The training, provided by railway operating companies, lasts between 2- 4 months. This includes classroom training, company procedures, safe working practices and emergency procedures. It also offers the opportunity to practice equipments under expert supervision.

    The Training process is under the control of the Korea Railroad Research Institute (KRRI) who provides the "Permit to Operate".

    Athens (Greece): Proastiakos:

    In Athens (Greece), the training is conducted by RATP Expert Trainers. This training was based on the French Parisian RATP model.

    There was no equivalent of South Africa's Standard Units or Standard Generating Bodies.

    As far as the system is concerned, the Train Control is based on the ERTMS European standard. The Rolling stock is of EMU type and the whole operation is supervised and controlled from a unique Operation Control Centre.

    Certification of the train drivers: The certification is awarded by a Committee made of three Representatives:
  • A Representative of the Ministry of Transport.
  • A Representative of the Greek National Railways (OZE), i.e. the Infrastructure Manager (OZE owns the infrastructure).
  • A Representative of the training entity (RATP Development).

    Some specific training is given by specific entities for:
  • Electricity Level 1.
  • Safety Induction.

    Dubai (Arab Emirates) Red and Green Lines:

    In Dubai, the design and construction of the Red and Green Lines driverless system is supervised by Systra, a RATP subsidiary.

    The Rules & Procedures as well as all the Training material are drafted by the future Operator (Serco), with the assistance of RATP Experts.

    For the time being, there is no equivalent of South Africa's Standard Units.

    However, the RTA (Road and Transports Authority) is entering into a corporation with the Office of Rail Regulation (ORR) to support the Certification/regulation of railway lines in Dubai.

    This certification process may be based on UK standards.

    In the UK the Modular Rule Book has been introduced where employers can select from a suite of modules the particular task instructions applicable to the role of their staff. There are 50 modules containing task based instructions and a module specifically to publish small amounts of changes to the Rule Book that do not justify the reissue of the module concerned

    The modules below are likely to be applicable to typical roles within the railway industry:
  • PTS = PTS competency only
  • HSM = Handsignaller competency. This requires PTS and at least IWA competency.
  • P/O = Points operator competency. This requires PTS and at least IWA unless person is restricted to working with a RSA.
  • RSA = Route setting agent. This requires PTS and at least IWA, if working with a P/O must be COSS.
  • LCA = Level crossing attendant. This requires PTS and at least IWA.
  • Lookout = Lookout and site warden competency. This requires PTS.
  • IWA = Individual working alone competency. This requires PTS.
  • COSS = Controller of site safety competency. This requires PTS.
  • PC = Protection Controller competency. This requires PTS and COSS.
  • ES = Engineering Supervisor. This requires PTS and COSS.
  • PICOP = Person in charge of possession competency. This requires PTS and at least IWA.
  • M/C = Machine controller competency. This requires PTS and COSS.
  • M/O = Machine operator. This requires PTS.
  • Sig/Tech = Signalling Technician competency. This requires PTS.
  • TSR = A person who sets up Emergency and temporary speed restrictions. This requires PTS.
  • Ctlr = Operations Controller.
  • Pilot/n = Pilotman competency. This requires PTS and at least IWA competency.
  • DP = Designated Person competency.
  • Sig'r = Signaller.

    New Zealand

    Qualifications from New Zealand were sourced for a comparison as they are a major rail service provider and are linked to a National Qualifications Framework.

    New Zealand has registered qualifications for rail which cover similar outcomes:

    Qualifications include:

    National Certificate in Rail Transport (Ref: 0958): Level 2, 70 Credits.

    This is an introductory certificate for people entering a career in rail transport. The aim of this qualification is to provide recognition for the attainment of a basic level of competence across the range of skills that comprise rail transport. The certificate offers the following compulsory areas:
  • Occupational Health and Safety Practices.
  • Interpersonal Communications.
  • Reading, Writing and problem-solving.
  • Basic knowledge of railway signals.
  • Knowledge of rail transport.

    The certificate includes specialization areas:
  • Engineering Core Skills.
  • Passenger Service.
  • Powered Industrial Lift Trucks.

    National Certificate in Rail Infrastructure (Ref: 1112): Level 3, 110 Credits.

    This is a certificate for people working within rail infrastructure. The aim of this qualification is to provide recognition for the attainment of a broad range of competencies related to the maintenance of track, structures and signals within the rail industry.

    This certificate is the second in a series of qualifications in the rail industry, it includes all of the unit standards contained in the National Certificate in Rail Transport (Level 2) [Ref: 0958]. Therefore, candidates who have already gained the level 2 certificate need only complete the additional unit standards required. The certificate offers the following compulsory areas:
  • Occupational Health and Safety Practices.
  • Interpersonal Communications.
  • Reading, Writing and problem-solving.
  • Basic knowledge of railway signals.
  • Knowledge of rail transport.
  • Operate under track protection rules.
  • Knowledge of rail network centres used to control the movement of rail service vehicles.

    The certificate includes specialization areas:
  • Engineering Core Skills.
  • Passenger Service.
  • Powered Industrial Lift Trucks.

    Conclusion:

    Most international rail operators working within the High-speed Intercity system do not have separate qualifications for train operations under defined working conditions, however training is based on expertise in the industry and regulated either by Government or Rail Regulating bodies. The qualifications in New Zealand and this qualification are similar in concept where staff is given the opportunity to receive a qualification that includes the management of passenger services and traffic control centres. There is every indication that the competence envisaged as outcomes for this qualification have their parallel in other countries.

    The South African context, with its emphasis on transformation, and particularly the provision of routes to qualification, fully justifies this qualification as part of a career and learning pathway for Train Operational staff within the High-speed Inter-city rail operation. 

  • ARTICULATION OPTIONS 
    The qualification lends itself to both horizontal and vertical articulation possibilities, which allow mobility and progression for the learner in the railway environment in particular, and the transport sector in general.

    Horizontal articulation possibilities lie with:

    ID 49489: Further Education and Training Certificate: Road Transport Management in the Public Sector, NQF Level 4.
    ID 24498: Further Education and Training Certificate: Rail Operations (Train Control), NQF Level 4.
    ID 57849: Further Education and Training Certificate: Dangerous Goods: Multi-modal Transportation, NQF Level 4.

    Vertical articulation possibilities lie with:

    ID 57407: National Diploma: Train Driving (Mainline Operations), NQF Level 5. 

    MODERATION OPTIONS 
    Providers offering learning towards this qualification or the component unit standards must be accredited by the relevant ETQA.

    Moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant ETQA according to moderation principles and the agreed ETQA procedures.

    The moderator has the following functions:
  • Monitoring and evaluating the standard of all summative assessments in terms of the ETQA policy.
  • Reviewing both substantive and process related matters in the case of an appeal against an assessment decision.
  • Maintaining standards by exercising appropriate influence and control over assessors to ensure good standards of practice.
  • Exercising a moderation function in case of a dispute between assessors, or between any assessor and learner.
  • Giving written feedback to Workplace Education and Training Committees the relevant ETQA and when required.
  • Submitting reports to the ETQA in terms of the ETQA policy. 

  • CRITERIA FOR THE REGISTRATION OF ASSESSORS 
  • Assessors must be registered in terms of the requirements of SAQA and the relevant ETQA. Assessors are assumed to have competence in rail transport above the level of this qualification.
  • Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against this qualification must be must be registered with relevant ETQA.
  • Assessment and moderation of assessment will be overseen by the ETQA according to the ETQA's policies and guidelines for assessment and moderation; in terms of agreements reached around assessment and moderation between ETQA's (including professional bodies); and in terms of the moderation guideline detailed immediately below.
  • Anyone wishing to be assessed against this Qualification may apply to be assessed by any assessment agency, assessor or provider institution that is accredited by the ETQA for this purpose. 

  • REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this qualification was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    NOTES 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARDS: 
      ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
    Core  256199  Comply with employer requirements to perform railway duties  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Core  117733  Handle rail passenger emergency plan  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Core  260918  Operate a radio transceiver  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Core  242815  Apply the organisation's code of conduct in a work environment  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Core  120344  Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of relevant current occupational health and safety legislation  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Core  262337  Manage a railway control centre  Level 4  NQF Level 04  16 
    Core  262357  Operate an Automatic Train Protection Signalling System  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Core  260919  Operate near and underneath high-voltage equipment  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Core  262358  Operate the movement of Electrical Multiple Unit (EMU) or Motor Coaches  Level 4  NQF Level 04  12 
    Core  262339  Operate, and regulate a Railway station  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Core  262338  Provide a ticket service  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Fundamental  119472  Accommodate audience and context needs in oral/signed communication  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Fundamental  119457  Interpret and use information from texts  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Fundamental  119467  Use language and communication in occupational learning programmes  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Fundamental  119465  Write/present/sign texts for a range of communicative contexts  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Fundamental  9015  Apply knowledge of statistics and probability to critically interrogate and effectively communicate findings on life related problems  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Fundamental  119462  Engage in sustained oral/signed communication and evaluate spoken/signed texts  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Fundamental  119469  Read/view, analyse and respond to a variety of texts  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Fundamental  9016  Represent analyse and calculate shape and motion in 2-and 3-dimensional space in different contexts  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Fundamental  119471  Use language and communication in occupational learning programmes  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Fundamental  7468  Use mathematics to investigate and monitor the financial aspects of personal, business, national and international issues  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Fundamental  119459  Write/present/sign for a wide range of contexts  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  256202  Compile a duty roster  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Elective  260957  Compile a train  Level 3  NQF Level 03  12 
    Elective  262446  Despatch a train  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Elective  262449  Devise strategies for the maintenance of a healthy lifestyle  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Elective  256195  Operate a diesel locomotive  Level 3  NQF Level 03  16 
    Elective  262445  Provide on-track protection  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Elective  260937  Utilise a Radio Train Token system of train control for safe movement on rail  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Elective  260917  Administer a Radio Train Token System for safe movement on rail  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  242816  Conduct a structured meeting  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  14667  Describe and apply the management functions of an organization  Level 4  NQF Level 04  10 
    Elective  260920  Explain the topographical concepts of a trajectory within the rail environment  Level 4  NQF Level 04  10 
    Elective  242821  Identify responsibilities of a team leader in ensuring that organisational standards are met  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  242810  Manage Expenditure against a budget  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  11473  Manage individual and team performance  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  242829  Monitor the level of service to a range of customers  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  242819  Motivate and Build a Team  Level 4  NQF Level 04  10 
    Elective  256200  Observe and repeat signals and train authorisations  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  230418  Operate, and regulate the safe movement of locomotive/s  Level 4  NQF Level 04  10 
    Elective  256194  Prepare a locomotive for service  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  242817  Solve problems, make decisions and implement solutions  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  255496  Manage a training intervention  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 


    LEARNING PROGRAMMES RECORDED AGAINST THIS QUALIFICATION: 
     
    NONE 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS QUALIFICATION: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    NONE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.