SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED QUALIFICATION: 

Further Education and Training Certificate: Leadership Development 
SAQA QUAL ID QUALIFICATION TITLE
50081  Further Education and Training Certificate: Leadership Development 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Administration 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY NQF SUB-FRAMEWORK
LG SETA - Local Government and related Services Sector Education and Training Authority  OQSF - Occupational Qualifications Sub-framework 
QUALIFICATION TYPE FIELD SUBFIELD
Further Ed and Training Cert  Field 03 - Business, Commerce and Management Studies  Generic Management 
ABET BAND MINIMUM CREDITS PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL QUAL CLASS
Undefined  160  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Regular-Unit Stds Based 
REGISTRATION STATUS SAQA DECISION NUMBER REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE
Reregistered  SAQA 10105/14  2015-07-01  2018-06-30 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2019-06-30   2022-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This qualification does not replace any other qualification and is not replaced by any other qualification. 

PURPOSE AND RATIONALE OF THE QUALIFICATION 
Purpose:

The purpose of the qualification is to enable qualifying learners to apply leadership competencies to ensure service excellence.

Learners will develop competencies to utilise leadership skills to enhance service delivery in a specific sector or context. Individual learners will benefit through enhancing their personal competencies, knowledge and skills so as to be able to complete tasks required in their employment contracts and by legislation, relating to:
  • Applying emotional intelligence in a leadership context.
  • Motivating self and others.
  • Applying leadership to relationship management.
  • Applying visionary thinking skills in leadership problem-solving contexts.
  • Developing service culture of a specific sector.

    Rationale:

    The qualification is aimed at councillors, leaders and municipal managers in local government. The typical learner will be an employee in local government, wishing to gain the competence to fulfill the requirements of his/her current job obligations or a municipal employee or councillor wishing to gain a qualification so as to advance his/her career opportunities. In addition persons seeking future employment in the local government sector may choose to complete this qualification.

    Office bearers and employees at local government level are responsible for managing the provision of services to the community. The Constitution of the South Africa (Act 108 of 1996) section 27 (1) states that all South Africans have the right to access health care services; sufficient food and water and social security. Section 27(2) requires the state to take reasonable measures within its available resources to provide these basic human rights. The state is also responsible for providing education for the community and managing all of the country's resources. The Constitution therefore allows the community to demand that services are met and that government office bearers and managers have the skills to take reasonable measures in providing services.

    The Exit Level Outcomes contained in this qualification are based on competencies required for people dealing with integrated development planning in a municipal context. The outcomes have been designed to fall into 8 broad areas of competence which will enable learners to:
  • Deal with issues and provide strategic leadership at various levels including community.
  • Build consensus amongst diverse groupings of people with various interests.
  • Apply innovative, creative and flexible strategies and thinking when dealing with community issues and needs.
  • Build trust between the councillors, officials, community and various competing interest groups while maintaining personal integrity.
  • Manage conflict.
  • Demonstrate the commitment and tenacity to achieve set objectives.
  • Communicate with conviction, confidence and integrity at all levels and constituencies.

    The qualification aims to provide opportunities for applied competencies in these areas and provides a basis for further qualifications in municipal and public sector management at higher levels on the NQF.

    Learners will build on their existing competencies. The competencies in this qualification will assist learners in their role in organisational leadership and will also provide competencies which are transferable to the any sector.

    The Exit Level Outcomes highlight many of the integrated and intergovernmental skills required within any sector. Such skills and knowledge are geared towards enabling councillors, leaders and municipal managers to operate effectively and successfully in a demanding environment. Therefore, the Exit Level Outcomes and related Assessment Criteria highlight competences related to achieving leadership development for any sector.

    The FETC: Leadership Development Level 4 should produce knowledgeable, multi-skilled workers who are able to contribute to enhanced service delivery in any sector or context. It should provide the means for current workers to receive recognition of prior learning, to upgrade their skills and achieve a nationally recognised qualification. It will ensure that the quality of education and training in the any sector is enhanced and of a world-class standard. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    It is assumed that learners are competent in:
  • Communication at NQF Level 3.
  • Mathematical Literacy at NQF Level 3.
  • Computer Literacy at NQF Level 3, or the equivalent thereof.

    Recognition of Prior Learning:

    The structure of this Unit Standard based Qualification makes the Recognition of Prior Learning possible. Learner and Assessor will jointly decide on methods to determine prior learning and competence in the knowledge, skills, values and attitudes implicit in the Qualification and the associated Unit Standards. Recognition of Prior Learning will be done by means of an Integrated Assessment as mentioned in the previous paragraph.

    This Recognition of Prior Learning may allow for:
  • Accelerated access to further learning at this or higher levels on the NQF.
  • Gaining of credits towards a Unit Standard in this Qualification.
  • Obtaining this Qualification in whole or in part.

    All recognition of Prior Learning is subject to quality assurance by the relevant ETQA or an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.

    Access to the qualification:

    There is open access to this qualification bearing in mind the learning assumed to be in place. 

  • RECOGNISE PREVIOUS LEARNING? 

    QUALIFICATION RULES 
    The Qualification consists of a Fundamental, a Core and an Elective Component.

    To be awarded the Qualification, learners are required to obtain a minimum of 160 credits as detailed below.

    Fundamental Component:

    The Fundamental Component consists of Unit Standards in:
  • Mathematical Literacy at NQF Level 4 to the value of 16 credits.
  • Communication at NQF Level 4 in a First South African Language to the value of 20 credits.
  • Communication in a Second South African Language at NQF Level 3 to the value of 20 credits.

    It is compulsory therefore for learners to do Communication in two different South African languages, one at NQF Level 4 and the other at NQF Level 3.

    All Unit Standards in the Fundamental Component are compulsory.

    Core Component:
  • The Core Component consists of Unit Standards to the value of 88 credits all of which are compulsory.

    Elective Component:
  • The Elective Component consists of Unit Standards to the value of 183 credits. Learners are to choose Unit Standards to the minimum of 16 credits and a minimum of three Unit Standards. With the approval of the relevant ETQA, learners may choose any registered Unit Standard which contributes to the improvement of their work performance or in which they have a particular interest. 

  • EXIT LEVEL OUTCOMES 
    On achieving this qualification, the learner will:

    1. Demonstrate an understanding of leadership skills in a specific sector or context.

    2. Apply innovative and creative strategies and visionary thinking skills in developing and implementing strategic planning.

    3. Apply leadership skills to enhance service delivery.

    4. Apply knowledge of ethical standards in a leadership role.

    5. Demonstrate an understanding of the role that emotional intelligence plays in leadership. 

    ASSOCIATED ASSESSMENT CRITERIA 
    On achieving this qualification, the learner will:

    1:
  • Leadership, its broad roles and related theories are defined in a work context.
  • The difference between leadership and management is clearly explained and demonstrated with examples.
  • An understanding of the role that emotional intelligence plays in leadership is explained with examples.
  • The values required in a leadership role and defined and applied in own work context.
  • The concepts, principles and different theories of motivation are applied in motivating self and others.

    2:
  • The purpose of visionary thinking in a leadership context is explained with examples.
  • Appropriate analyses to determine current context and future variable factors are performed in a specific context.
  • Scenario plans are designed in line with analyses conducted.
  • Selected scenarios are built into strategic and business planning processes.
  • Management techniques are utilised to evaluate scenario efficacy.

    3:
  • Leadership skills and techniques are applied to relationship management.
  • Knowledge management is utilised in leadership function to enhance service delivery.
  • Leadership skills and techniques are utilised to provide contributions to community development projects and to address identified community issues.
  • Strategic planning skills and plans are utilised to enhance leadership function for excellent service delivery.

    4:
  • The core ethical values and standards which apply to the public sector are explained with examples.
  • The ethical values and standards contained in legislation and codes are outlined showing the link to the conduct of employees in a specific sector.
  • Areas of ethical conflict for employees are identified with examples.
  • The importance of ethical values and standards are explained in relation to a specific sector.
  • The principles of Batho Pele are integrated into leadership roles.

    5:
  • Emotional intelligence is defined and its impacts on leadership is explained with examples.
  • The ways in which emotional intelligence relates to self-awareness is explained with examples.
  • The ways in which emotional intelligence relates to self-management is explained with examples.
  • The ways in which emotional intelligence relates to social awareness is explained with examples.
  • Techniques for responding to situations in an emotionally intelligent manner are applied in a leadership context.

    Integrated assessment:

    Because assessment practices must be open, transparent, fair, valid, and reliable and ensure that no learner is disadvantaged in any way whatsoever, an integrated assessment approach is incorporated into the Qualification.

    Learning, teaching and assessment are inextricably lined. Whenever possible, the assessment of knowledge, skills, attitudes and values shown in the unit standards should be integrated.

    Assessment of the communication, language, literacy and strategic analysis and planning competencies should be conducted in conjunction with other aspects and should use authentic municipal development contexts wherever possible.

    A variety of methods must be used in assessment and tools and activities must be appropriate to the context in which the learner is working. Where it is not possible to assess the learner in the workplace or on-the-job, simulations, case studies, role-plays and other similar techniques should be used to provide a context appropriate to the assessment.

    The term 'Integrated Assessment' implies that theoretical and practical components should be assessed together. During integrated assessments the assessor should make use of formative and summative assessment methods and assess combinations of practical, applied, foundational and reflective competencies.

    Assessors and moderators should make use of a range of formative and summative assessment methods. Assessors should assess and give credit for the evidence of learning that has already been acquired through formal, informal and non-formal learning and work experience.

    Assessment should ensure that all specific outcomes, embedded knowledge and critical cross-field outcomes are evaluated. The assessment of the critical cross-field outcomes should be integrated with the assessment of specific outcomes and embedded knowledge. 

  • INTERNATIONAL COMPARABILITY 
    The importance of leadership and leadership development in any context is well articulated worldwide and Internet resources, materials and assistance on this topic were both freely available and easy to find.
  • General:

    In most countries canvassed through the web, websites, centers and training were also easy to find and often freely available for the development of leadership qualities in any context. In this regard resources were accessed in Australia, Scotland, The United Kingdom and in a large number of stated in the USA.

    In regard to all the materials accessed, the concepts relating to leadership, its importance and development were fairly consistent and ubiquitous. One can conclude that the disciplines relating to leadership, its development and importance in any context are not unique and have reached a level of maturity in their development.
  • Botswana:

    A search for unit standards based qualifications was however more difficult.

    The Botswana Training authority (www.bota.org.bw) is not a searchable site and has a dearth of information relating to leadership training.
  • United Kingdom:

    The Qualifications and Curriculum Authority of the United Kingdom (www.qca.org.uk), and a search of the open qualifications database (www.openquals.org.uk) could not find any relevant qualifications pertaining to public leadership itself. It seems that the United Kingdom has only recently adopted a national strategy to develop leadership at a local government level. (www.idea-knowledge.gov.uk), and has established a "Leadership Academy."

    The University of Birmingham in the UK, for example, provides a number of advanced courses such as the Advanced Leadership Program. It also provided contextualised leadership programs such as for 'local governance' for 'development and the built environment' and 'health.' This program and similar program in the common wealth, and Africa are all at degree and post degree (MBA) level which would equate to NQF6 or higher.
  • Scotland:

    Similarly an investigation of the Australian Qualifications Framework (www.aqf.edu.au), the Scottish Qualifications Authority (www.sqa.org.uk) and The National Qualifications authority of Ireland (www.nqai.ie) all failed to reveal any specific qualification of a similar nature to this qualification. On the other hand general public service and local government qualifications were available.

    No comparable qualification could be found internationally dealing with leadership development at a level comparable to NQF Level 4. It seems therefore, that as a separate, specialist qualification, South Africa is unique in the development of this kind of qualification. This uniqueness can be ascribed to the particular need in South Africa of having to develop human resources for leadership functions at NQF Level 4. 

  • ARTICULATION OPTIONS 
    This Qualification articulates vertically and horizontally with the following Qualifications:
  • Business Administration.
  • Generic Management.
  • Public Finance Management and Administration.
  • Municipal Finance Management and Administration. 

  • MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against this Qualification must be registered as an assessor with the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable the achievement of this Qualification must be accredited as a provider with the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the Financial Services (FASSET) ETQA.
  • Assessment and moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or by an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the FASSET ETQA, according to the ETQA's policies and guidelines for assessment and moderation.
  • Moderation must include both internal and external moderation of assessments at exit points of the Qualification, unless ETQA policies specify otherwise. Moderation should also encompass achievement of the competence described both in individual Unit Standards as well as the integrated competence described in the Qualification.

    Anyone wishing to be assessed against this Qualification may apply to be assessed by any assessment agency, assessor or provider institution that is accredited by the relevant ETQA. 

  • CRITERIA FOR THE REGISTRATION OF ASSESSORS 
    For an applicant to register as an assessor, the applicant needs:
  • A minimum of 5 (five) years' practical, relevant occupational experience in urban and regional development and integrated development planning.
  • To be declared competent in all the outcomes of the National Assessor Unit Standards as stipulated by South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA).
  • To be in possession of a Qualification in Town and Regional Planning, Development Planning or Public Management and Administration at an NQF Level 6 or higher. 

  • REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this qualification was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    NOTES 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARDS: 
      ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
    Core  14534  Apply knowledge of community issues in relation to development projects  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Core  113955  Apply the Batho Pele principles to own work role and context  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Core  120394  Apply communication principles, strategies and processes in a leadership role  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Core  120391  Apply leadership skills to relationship management  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Core  120392  Apply the concept and principles of knowledge management to leadership  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Core  113960  Demonstrate and apply knowledge of the ethical standards in the Public Sector  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Core  120390  Develop and apply a service culture to a leadership role  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Core  120393  Explain and apply legislation and policies applicable to leadership in a specific sector or context  Level 4  NQF Level 04  10 
    Core  120389  Explain and apply the concept, principles and theories of motivation in a leadership context  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Core  114585  Plan strategically to improve business performance  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Core  120300  Analyse leadership and related theories in a work context  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
    Core  120305  Analyse the role that emotional intelligence plays in leadership  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
    Core  120311  Apply visionary leadership to develop strategy  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  10 
    Fundamental  8968  Accommodate audience and context needs in oral communication  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Fundamental  8972  Interpret a variety of literary texts  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Fundamental  8969  Interpret and use information from texts  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Fundamental  8970  Write texts for a range of communicative contexts  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Fundamental  9015  Apply knowledge of statistics and probability to critically interrogate and effectively communicate findings on life related problems  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Fundamental  8974  Engage in sustained oral communication and evaluate spoken texts  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Fundamental  8975  Read analyse and respond to a variety of texts  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Fundamental  9016  Represent analyse and calculate shape and motion in 2-and 3-dimensional space in different contexts  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Fundamental  7468  Use mathematics to investigate and monitor the financial aspects of personal, business, national and international issues  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Fundamental  12153  Use the writing process to compose texts required in the business environment  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Fundamental  8976  Write for a wide range of contexts  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  113959  Identify basic employment rights and responsibilities and deal appropriately with own grievances and disputes  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Elective  10140  Apply a range of project management tools  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  14667  Describe and apply the management functions of an organization  Level 4  NQF Level 04  10 
    Elective  119350  Apply accounting principles and procedures in the preparation of reports and decision making  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  15 
    Elective  116917  Apply advanced principles of complexity theory to organisational transformation  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  12 
    Elective  115395  Apply and explain the generic business process and value chain model  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  12 
    Elective  120303  Apply principles of risk management  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
    Elective  115401  Apply the basic principles of issue management  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
    Elective  116345  Apply the principles of budgeting within a municipality  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  15 
    Elective  115407  Apply the principles of change management in the workplace  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  10 
    Elective  11903  Co-ordinate the development and implementation of organisational social responsibility strategies  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
    Elective  15216  Create opportunities for innovation and lead projects to meet innovative ideas  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
    Elective  337063  Demonstrate knowledge and insight into the principles of monitoring and evaluation in assessing organisation and/or programme performance in a specific context  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
    Elective  116949  Establish how a value system underpins organisational transformation  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  12 
    Elective  116924  Implement a programme of diversity management in the workplace  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  14 
    Elective  116922  Implement a value system to effect organisational transformation  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  12 
    Elective  114226  Interpret and manage conflicts within the workplace  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
    Elective  119336  Manage the development and performance of human capital in the public sector  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  12 
    Elective  10146  Supervise a project team of a developmental project to deliver project objectives  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  14 


    LEARNING PROGRAMMES RECORDED AGAINST THIS QUALIFICATION: 
     
    NONE 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS QUALIFICATION: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. ABA Sebenzi 
    2. Africa Corporate Training Institute and HR Consulting 
    3. Africa Institute For Public Administration 
    4. Afriwealth Consulting 
    5. AfroXpert Performance Developement cc 
    6. All Access Holdings 
    7. Amadube Investments CC 
    8. Amelron General Business Enterprise 
    9. ARNL Construction Development Projects 
    10. Asiphokuhle Training and Research Institute 
    11. AVAX SA 481 CC. T/A Mandisa Development Services 
    12. Bashumi Consulting 
    13. Boikgantsho Consulting & Events 
    14. Bonolo Training Institute 
    15. Break The Chains Development Services 
    16. BW Khuzwayo Consulting CC 
    17. CB Willemse Training 
    18. Continuing Education Programme 
    19. Cre8ive Organisational Development 
    20. CTC College(PTY) LTD. 
    21. Dean Institute Of Learning (Pty) Ltd 
    22. Dee's Training (PTY) LTD 
    23. Dependable Consulting (Pty) 
    24. Didintle Training Services 
    25. DM Training Consultants 
    26. Elective Training Institute Enterprise CC 
    27. Faranang Marketing 
    28. Fire Protection Association of Southern Africa 
    29. Frugatrax Consultants 
    30. GOBELA CONSULTING 
    31. Goitsikitso Enterprise Trading 
    32. His Mercy Learning Academy 
    33. Hlombe and Associates 
    34. Izwelethu Black Diamond 
    35. Jobafrik Consulting 
    36. Josmap Training Institute 
    37. Kamanga Skills Projects 
    38. Karabo Ya Karabo 
    39. Kernel Management and Consulting (PTY) LTD. 
    40. Kgotla Trading Enterprise 
    41. Khosithi Training 
    42. KOKANO PROJECTS PTY LTD 
    43. KWEM Management Solutions 
    44. KZN Tourism Training Centre 
    45. Lagnita Skills Solutions 
    46. Lewerb Holdings (PTY) Ltd 
    47. LMMM Training and Development 
    48. Lwazi Community Facilitator 
    49. M.I.C. Training and Development 
    50. Makaota Training Consultants 
    51. Makgoka Development Facilitation (PTY) Ltd. 
    52. Makhophila Business Enterprise 
    53. Mangalani Business Enterprises 
    54. Maqhawe College 
    55. Mathaveiya Skills Enhancement 
    56. Mgwezane Training and Events Management CC. 
    57. Mission Point Trading 69 
    58. MJ Mafunisa Consulting (PTY) LTD 
    59. Mmalethabo Consulting 
    60. Mod-Mosh Projects and Consulting (PTY) LTD 
    61. Mohlaje Solutions (Pty) Ltd 
    62. Mosako Wa Kitso 
    63. Neopeo Trading & Projects 
    64. Netgrow Training Solutions 
    65. Networx for Career Development 
    66. Nhlahle Development Agency 
    67. Nkinane Trading Enterprise 
    68. Nkqubela Community Developers 
    69. NLKN Holdings (Pty) Ltd 
    70. NS Global Academy 
    71. Ntokosi Consulting 
    72. Ntsangalala Business Enterprise 
    73. Nyankwavi Investment CC. 
    74. Omithombo Management Academy 
    75. Pandelani Investment Holdings (PTY) LTD. 
    76. PFIM Trading (Pty) Ltd 
    77. Power Rush Trading 170 CC. 
    78. Pudi's Educational Services And Youth Development 
    79. Purple Haze Connexion (PTY) LTD 
    80. Resonance Institue of Learning 
    81. South African Governance and Business College 
    82. SPG Promotions and Distributions CC 
    83. STARPLEX 408 CC 
    84. Summat Training Institute 
    85. SWARANANG MANAGEMENT CONSULTING CC 
    86. Talent Emporium Academy (PTY) Ltd 
    87. Tankimo Trading (Pty) Ltd 
    88. The Crimson CO CC. 
    89. Tradesman Consulting and Training Solutions 
    90. Tsebo Kitso Trainings 
    91. Tsebong Training Centre 
    92. Tshwane Training Institute (PTY) LTD. 
    93. Ubuqhawe Consulting (Pty) Ltd 
    94. Ukhamba Quality Skills 
    95. Umsenge SDCS 
    96. Vantage Training 
    97. Vicmat Consultants 
    98. Visionary Academy 
    99. Ya Hina Management Consulting and projects 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.