SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED QUALIFICATION: 

Further Education and Training Certificate: Marketing 
SAQA QUAL ID QUALIFICATION TITLE
67464  Further Education and Training Certificate: Marketing 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Marketing 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY NQF SUB-FRAMEWORK
The individual Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary for each Learning Programme recorded against this qualification is shown in the table at the end of this report.  SFAP - Sub-framework Assignment Pending 
QUALIFICATION TYPE FIELD SUBFIELD
Further Ed and Training Cert  Field 03 - Business, Commerce and Management Studies  Marketing 
ABET BAND MINIMUM CREDITS PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL QUAL CLASS
Undefined  139  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Regular-Unit Stds Based 
REGISTRATION STATUS SAQA DECISION NUMBER REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE
Reregistered  SAQA 06120/18  2018-07-01  2021-06-30 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2022-06-30   2025-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This qualification does not replace any other qualification and is not replaced by any other qualification. 

PURPOSE AND RATIONALE OF THE QUALIFICATION 
Purpose:

The FETC: Marketing is designed for people already in marketing or aspire to a similar career. The Qualification allows the learner to work towards a nationally recognized professional Qualification. It aims to develop individuals who wish to be qualified in one of the five sub-disciplines of Marketing: Direct Marketing, Marketing Communication, Customer Management, Marketing Management, Marketing Research. The Qualification has building blocks from which a deeper and fuller appreciation of marketing can be developed and will help learners to achieving personal, learning and career goals.

People involved or wishing to work in Marketing will access this Qualification. It will also serve as an entry Qualification into the higher levels of Marketing Qualifications.

Rationale:

The FETC: Marketing at NQF Level 4 is designed for learners who want to enter and work in the field of Marketing. The marketing function is a key business function which affects the success of any organization, both strategically and operationally. This Qualification is aimed at people who wish to develop an understanding of the marketing principles and practices.

The Qualification provides broad knowledge and skills needed in marketing and its sub-fields. The learners who complete the qualification will be able to work as:
  • Marketing Managers.
  • Marketing Assistants.
  • Product Managers.
  • Public Relations Managers.
  • Category Managers.
  • Database Administrators.
  • Marketing Assistants.

    The FETC: Marketing is aiming at producing knowledgeable, skilled Marketers who are able to contribute to improved productivity and efficiency within the marketing industry. It should provide the means for individuals currently in the Marketing field to receive recognition of prior learning and to upgrade their skills and knowledge base. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    It is assumed that the learners are competent in:
  • Communication at NQF Level 3.
  • Mathematical Literacy at NQF Level 3.
  • Computer Literacy at NQF Level 3.

    Recognition of Prior Learning:

    The structure of this Unit Standard based Qualification makes the Recognition of Prior Learning possible, if the learner is able to demonstrate competence in the knowledge, skills, values and attitudes implicit in this Marketing Qualification. Recognition of Prior Learning will be done by means of an Integrated Assessment as mentioned in the previous paragraph.

    This Recognition of Prior Learning may allow:
  • For accelerated access to further learning.
  • Gaining of credits towards a unit standard.

    All recognition of Prior Learning is subject to quality assurance by the relevant accredited Education, Training, Quality, and Assurance Body and is conducted by a registered workplace assessor. Because the standards are only core and fundamental, these standards may have been acquired in a range of economic sectors and these will be recognizes as appropriate.

    Access to Qualification:

    There is an open access to this qualification, keeping in mind the "Learning assumed to be in place". 

  • RECOGNISE PREVIOUS LEARNING? 

    QUALIFICATION RULES 
    The Qualification consists of a Fundamental, a Core and an Elective Component.

    To be awarded the Qualification, learners are required to obtain a minimum of 139 credits as detailed below.

    Fundamental Component:

    The Fundamental Component consists of Unit Standards in:
  • Mathematical Literacy at NQF Level 4 to the value of 16 credits.
  • Communication at NQF Level 4 in a First South African Language to the value of 20 credits.
  • Communication in a Second South African Language at NQF Level 3 to the value of 20 credits.

    It is compulsory therefore for learners to do Communication in two different South African languages, one at NQF Level 4 and the other at NQF Level 3.

    All Unit Standards in the Fundamental Component are compulsory.

    Core Component:

    The Core Component consists of Unit Standards to the value of 65 credits all of which are compulsory.

    Elective Component:

    The Elective Component consists of Unit Standards to the value of 100 credits in a number of specializations each with its own set of Unit Standards. Learners may choose a specialization area and Elective Unit Standards at least to the value of 18 credits from the Unit Standards listed under that specialization.

    With the approval of the relevant ETQA, learners may choose any registered Unit Standard which contributes to the improvement of their work performance or in which they have a particular interest to make up the minimum of 18 Credits required.

    Direct Marketing (total 20 credits):
  • ID 252190: Explain and implement the direct mail production process, Level 4, 6 credits.
  • ID 252215: Liaise and interact with direct marketing role players, Level 4, 8 credits.
  • ID 252212: Set up mechanisms for response handling, Level 4, 6 credits.

    Marketing Communication (total 20 credits):
  • ID 252192: Demonstrate an understanding and define the nature and role of marketing communications, Level 4, 6 credits.
  • ID 252198: Demonstrate an understanding of creative principles of marketing communications, Level 4, 6 credits.
  • ID 252219: Describe and apply conceptual processes in a marketing communication context, Level 5, 8 credits.

    Customer Management (total 18 credits):
  • ID 252214: Conduct follow-up with customers to evaluate satisfaction levels, Level 4, 6 credits.
  • ID 252196: Describe features, advantages and benefits of products and services, Level 4, 4 credits.
  • ID 118028: Supervise customer service standards, Level 4, 8 credits.

    Marketing Management (total 22 credits):
  • ID 252213: Carry out marketing administration within agreed parameters, Level 4, 6 credits.
  • ID 252200: Implement activity plans to meet agreed deadlines, Level 4, 6 credits.
  • ID 242819: Motivate and build a team, Level 4, 10 credits.

    Marketing Research (total 20 credits):
  • ID 252207: Attend briefing and return work on deadlines, Level 4, 7 credits.
  • ID 252190: Edit, code and capture data, Level 4, 5 credits.
  • ID 252205: Follow sampling requirements, Level 4, 5 credits.
  • ID 252208: Record raw data, Level 4, 3 credits. 

  • EXIT LEVEL OUTCOMES 
    1. Work and comply with organisational ethics, concepts and cultures.

    2. Meet marketing objectives with available resources.

    3. Position and promote products to meet customers needs.

    4. Maintain internal and external customer satisfaction levels.

    5. Apply aspects of marketing. 

    ASSOCIATED ASSESSMENT CRITERIA 
    Associated Assessment Criteria for Exit Level Outcome 1:
  • The importance of team work and communication with all relevant stakeholders is demonstrated in order to meet marketing requirements and objectives.
  • The principles of marketing are demonstrated and related to the needs of various stakeholder.
  • Marketing activities and rules are described and discussed related to the impact of non compliance.

    Associated Assessment Criteria for Exit Level Outcome 2:
  • Decisions to select and utilise resources are made and the appropriate expertise is used.
  • The legal and ethical requirements in marketing are described and discussed related to non compliance.

    Associated Assessment Criteria for Exit Level Outcome 3:
  • Identified customers are given the correct information (features , advantages, benefits) to enable them to make informed buying decisions.
  • Promotions, which deal with either brand, product or service are dealt with in accordance with the expected outcomes of a range of existing promotional opportunities.
  • The importance and specific place of product positioning in Marketing is explained with examples.
  • The importance and specific place of target markets in Marketing is explained with examples, by demonstrating an all rounded understanding of its importance and place in the Marketing.

    Associated Assessment Criteria for Exit Level Outcome 4:
  • The importance of understanding the needs of internal and external stakeholders, as well as the importance of marketing as a profession is explained in relation to the processes of marketing.
  • Customers are identified and of constructive relationships are ensured by ongoing liaison.
  • Appropriate methods, techniques and principles of dealing with customers and clients are applied to ensure that all stakeholders are informed up to acceptable levels.

    Associated Assessment Criteria for Exit Level Outcome 5:
  • The definition and application of marketing is explained in terms of international definitions and trends.
  • Standard practices and processes within the selected marketing discipline are performed in a integrated way to other disciplines of Marketing.

    Integrated Assessment:

    Because assessment practices must be open, transparent, fair, valid, and reliable and ensure that no learner is disadvantaged in any way whatsoever, an integrated assessment approach is incorporated into the Qualification.

    Learning, teaching and assessment are inextricably linked. Whenever possible, the assessment of knowledge, skills, attitudes and values shown in the unit standards should be integrated.

    Assessment of the communication, language, literacy and numeracy should be conducted in conjunction with other aspects and should use authentic selling and specific economic sector contexts wherever possible.

    A variety of methods must be used in assessment and tools and activities must be appropriate to the context in which the learner is working. Where it is not possible to assess the learner in the workplace or on-the-job, simulations, case studies, role-plays and other similar techniques should be used to provide a context appropriate to the assessment.

    The term 'Integrated Assessment' implies that theoretical and practical components should be assessed together. During integrated assessments the assessor should make use of formative and summative assessment methods and assess combinations of practical, applied, foundational and reflective competencies.

    Assessors and moderators should make use of a range of formative and summative assessment methods. Assessors should assess and give credit for the evidence of learning that has already been acquired through formal, informal and non-formal learning and work experience.

    Assessment should ensure that all specific outcomes, embedded knowledge and critical cross-field outcomes are assessed. The assessment of the critical cross-field outcomes should be integrated with the assessment of specific outcomes and embedded knowledge. 

  • INTERNATIONAL COMPARABILITY 
    The United Kingdom and the United States of America are international leaders in Marketing as well as in the academic training and development in the field. The courses compared to this qualification represent a cross section of all available courses and give a clear indication of typical programme content.

    United Kingdom:

    Charted Institute of Marketing-Professional Certificate in Marketing:
  • The role of Marketing and concept of marketing orientation.
  • Collect, interpret and present information.
  • Apply marketing tools within a given marketing context.
  • Calculate and justify budgets for specific marketing activities.
  • Contribute to the implementation of marketing projects and their monitoring and measurement.
  • Develop relationships inside and outside the organisation to enhance the effectiveness of marketing activities.
  • Apply customer care principles to create positive customer relationships.

    Kalta Consulting - Certificate in Marketing:
  • Marketing Fundamentals.
  • Customer Communications.
  • The Marketing Environment.
  • Marketing in Practice.

    United States of America:

    American Marketing Association - Marketing Courses:
  • Brand Management.
  • Competitive Structure.
  • E-Marketing.
  • Marketing Ethics.
  • Marketing Communications.
  • Marketing Intelligence.
  • Marketing and Society.
  • Marketing Research.
  • New Product Development.
  • Selling and Sales.

    Montgomery County Community College - Marketing Courses:
  • Principles of Marketing.
  • Creative Selling.
  • Advertising and Promotions.
  • Retail Merchandising.
  • Co-op Internship Marketing 1.
  • Marketing on the Web.
  • International Marketing.
  • Co-op Internship Marketing 2.

    American Association of Advertisers - ANA Marketing Training:
  • Brand Management.
  • Promotions.
  • Advertising.
  • Media Management.
  • Marketing Management.
  • Agency Relations.
  • Marketing Finance.
  • New Product Development.
  • Presentations.
  • Public Relations.

    ASIA - (Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Singapore, Phillippians and Dubai):

    Shangri-La Training - Sales and Marketing Training Programmes:
  • Essential Selling Skills.
  • Negotiating Skills.
  • Strategic Sales Management 1.
  • Sales Leadership.
  • Introduction to Marketing.

    Australia:

    University Of Technology Sydney - School of Marketing:
  • Marketing:
    > Consumer Behaviour.
    > Business Marketing.
    > International Marketing.
    > Introductory Marketing Research.
    > Advertising and Promotions Management.
    > Marketing of Services.
  • Information Management in Marketing:
    > Introductory Marketing Research.
    > Decision Models in Marketing.
    > Applications of Marketing Research.
    > Quantitative Marketing Analysis.
  • Advertising:
    > Consumer Behaviour.
    > Advertising and Promotions Management.
    > Advertising Research.
    > Introductory Marketing Research.
  • Retailing and Services:
    > Retail Marketing Management Services.
    > Professional Relational Services.
    > Marketing of Services.
    > E-Business Foundations.

    Canada:

    Canadian Marketing Association - Professional Marketing Certificates:

    Advertising and Media:
    > Introduction to Strategic Planning Framework.
    > Value Proposition and Branding.
    > Market, Competitive and Consumer Analysis.
    > Advertising Planning.
    > Driving Action for Advertising.
    > Planning and Assessing Media Buys.
    > More about Media.
    > Developing Creative and Managing Execution.
    > Pre and Post Measurement.
  • Direct Marketing Course:
    > Introduction to Direct Marketing and Strategy 1.
    > Strategy 2.
    > A Campaign Overview.
    > Media Options and Opportunities 1.
    > Media Options and Opportunities 2.
    > Targeting, Segmentation, Database and Privacy 1.
    > Targeting, Segmentation, Database and Privacy 2.
    > Offer, Testing and Research.
    > The Creative Process.
    > Creative Application.
    > Math, Measurement, Analysis and Planning.
    > Fulfilment and Telemarketing.

    Concusion:

    From the analysis it is clear that there is a great deal of synergy between different countries and institutions offering learning on 'Marketing' with some minor differences, related to the fact that the USA and ASIA emphasise Sales in comparison to this Qualification. The SGB for Marketing has registered separate Qualifications which deal exclusively with 'Sales and Sales Processes'. 

  • ARTICULATION OPTIONS 
    This Qualification lends itself to both vertical and horizontal articulation possibilities.

    Horizontal articulation is possible with the following Qualifications:
  • ID: 21791; National Certificate: Contact Centre Operations, Level 4.
  • ID: 13719; National Certificate: Retail and Wholesale Sales and Service Technology, Level 4.

    Vertical articulation is possible with the following qualifications:
  • ID: 20900; National Diploma: Marketing Management, Level 5.
  • ID: 20896; National Diploma: Marketing Research, Level 5.
  • ID: 20904; National Diploma: Marketing Communications, Level 5. 

  • MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against this Qualification must be registered as an assessor with the relevant Education, Training, Quality, and Assurance (ETQA) Body.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable the achievement of this Qualification must be accredited as a provider with the relevant ETQA.
  • Assessment and moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant ETQA according to the ETQA's policies and guidelines for assessment and moderation; in terms of agreements reached around assessment and moderation between ETQA's (including professional bodies); and in terms of the moderation guideline detailed immediately below.
  • Moderation must include both internal and external moderation of assessments at exit points of the Qualification, unless ETQA policies specify otherwise. Moderation should also encompass achievement of the competence described both in individual unit standards, the integrated competence described in the Qualification and will include competence within core sales and the elective standards relevant to the economic sector.

    Anyone wishing to be assessed against this Qualification may apply to be assessed by any assessment agency, assessor or provider institution that is accredited by the relevant ETQA. 

  • CRITERIA FOR THE REGISTRATION OF ASSESSORS 
    For an applicant to register as an assessor, the applicant needs:
  • A minimum of 2 (two) years' practical, relevant occupational experience.
  • A relevant Qualification at NQF Level 5 or higher.
  • To be registered as an assessor with the relevant ETQA. 

  • REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this qualification was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    NOTES 
    This qualification replaces the following qualifications:
  • 20894: National Certificate: Marketing Research, NQF Level 4, 134 credits
  • 20899: National Certificate: Marketing Management, NQF Level 4, 134 credits
  • 20903: National Certificate: Marketing Communications, NQF Level 4, 134 credits
  • 20907: National Certificate: Customer Management, NQF Level 4, 134 credits 

  • UNIT STANDARDS: 
      ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
    Core  252201  Apply marketing team work strategies  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Core  252216  Comply with legal requirements and organisational and professional codes of conduct  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Core  252217  Comply with organisational ethics  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Core  252202  Deal with brand, product and service promotions  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Core  252206  Demonstrate an understanding of product positioning  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Core  252211  Demonstrate an understanding of the competitive environment and product positioning  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Core  252203  Demonstrate an understanding of the target market  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Core  252210  Handle a range of customer complaints  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Core  252197  Identify and use marketing resources to meet objectives  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Core  252195  Identify expertise and resources  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Core  252191  Identify internal and external stakeholders  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Core  252193  Identify potential and existing customers of the business  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Core  252209  Instil in oneself a personal marketing culture  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Core  252218  Liaise with a range of customers of a business  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Core  252194  Meet marketing performance standards  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Core  252204  Monitor marketing information flow and collect and process marketing data  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Fundamental  119472  Accommodate audience and context needs in oral/signed communication  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Fundamental  119457  Interpret and use information from texts  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Fundamental  119467  Use language and communication in occupational learning programmes  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Fundamental  119465  Write/present/sign texts for a range of communicative contexts  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
    Fundamental  9015  Apply knowledge of statistics and probability to critically interrogate and effectively communicate findings on life related problems  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Fundamental  119462  Engage in sustained oral/signed communication and evaluate spoken/signed texts  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Fundamental  119469  Read/view, analyse and respond to a variety of texts  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Fundamental  9016  Represent analyse and calculate shape and motion in 2-and 3-dimensional space in different contexts  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Fundamental  119471  Use language and communication in occupational learning programmes  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Fundamental  7468  Use mathematics to investigate and monitor the financial aspects of personal, business, national and international issues  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Fundamental  119459  Write/present/sign for a wide range of contexts  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  252207  Attend briefing and return work on deadline  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  252213  Carry out marketing administration within agreed parameters  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  252214  Conduct follow-up with customers to evaluate satisfaction levels  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  252192  Demonstrate an understanding and define the nature and role of marketing communications  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  252198  Demonstrate an understanding of creative principles of marketing communications  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  252196  Describe features, advantages and benefits of products and services  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  252190  Edit, code and capture data  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  252199  Explain and implement the direct mail production process  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  252205  Follow sampling requirements  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  252200  Implement activity plans to meet agreed deadlines  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  252215  Liaise and interact with direct marketing role players  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  242819  Motivate and Build a Team  Level 4  NQF Level 04  10 
    Elective  252208  Record raw data  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  252212  Set up mechanisms for response handling  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  118028  Supervise customer service standards  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  12153  Use the writing process to compose texts required in the business environment  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  252219  Describe and apply conceptual processes in a marketing communication context  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 


    LEARNING PROGRAMMES RECORDED AGAINST THIS QUALIFICATION: 
     
    LP ID Learning Programme Title Originator Pre-2009
    NQF Level
    NQF Level Min Credits Learning Prog End Date Quality
    Assurance
    Functionary
    NQF Sub-Framework
    67514  Further Education and Training Certificate: Marketing  Damelin  Level 4  NQF Level 04  139     SERVICES  OQSF 
    59276  Further Education and Training Certificate: Marketing  Generic Provider - Field 03  Level 4  NQF Level 04  139     SERVICES  OQSF 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THESE LEARNING PROGRAMMES: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    LP ID Learning Programme Title Accredited Provider
    59276  Further Education and Training Certificate: Marketing  1. A5 COMPETENCE EVOLUTION PTY LTD
    2. AMATHUBA HUB
    3. ANIDA TRAINING CC
    4. BDCE
    5. CENTRAL BUSINESS ACADEMY PTY LTD
    6. DIALOGUE COMMUNICATION TRAINING CC
    7. DIGIT LAB DIGITAL STRATEGY PTY LTD
    8. DIONYSUS SKILLS DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVE PTY LTD
    9. DURBAN BUSINESS COLLEGE
    10. EDGE TRAINING CONSULTANCY C
    11. EDGE TRAINING CONSULTANCY PTY LTD
    12. EDUTEL SERVICES PTY LTD
    13. EYOLUNTU DEVELOPMENT CENTRE
    14. I-FUNDI
    15. ICOLLEGE PTY LTD
    16. KINGSBURY INTERNATIONAL COLLEGE SA PTY LTD
    17. KUMALO GREEN CC
    18. MERCURI INTERNATIONAL SA
    19. Open Learning Group
    20. OPTIMUM LEARNING TECHNOLOGIES PTY LTD
    21. OPTIMUM LEARNING TECHNOLOGIES PTY LTD
    22. PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE OF SOUTHERN AFRICA PTY LTD
    23. RAISING THE STANDARDS SOLUTIONS
    24. REGENERATION SKILLS DEVELOPMENT CONSULTANCY
    25. Siyaloba Training Academy
    26. SIYANQOBA SEMINARS PTY LTD
    27. SKILL TECH SOLUTIONS PTY LTD
    28. SPECTRIUM
    29. STANFORD COMPUTER AND BUSINESS COLLEGE
    30. THE HUMAN RESOURCE PRACTICE CC
    31. THE INSTITUTE OF PERFORMANCE TECHNOLOGY PTY LTD
    32. TIRISANO YA BAKWENA CONSULTANTS
    33. TRENTSTONE COLLEGE
    34. TSHIREDO TRAINING ACADEMY CC
    35. ZILA MKHONTO TRADING AND PROJECTS  



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.